U.S. Military Services


Counter Intelligence Corps

A - M

The materials included here cover the entire history of CIC -- from its formation in 1942 to its merger into the U.S. Army Intelligence Corps in 1962.

Boghardt, Thomas. "Dirty Work? The Use of Nazi Informants by U.S. Army Intelligence in Postwar Europe." Journal of Military History 79 (Apr. 2015): 387-422.

The focus here is on the Army Counter Intelligence Corps (CIC) in postwar Germany and the recruitment of "former Nazi officials, war crimes suspects, and war criminals to collect information on communist party and Soviet activities in Europe.... [T]his article seeks to establish the historical context of the early Cold War that set the framework for this intelligence exploitation. It also weighs the intelligence value of the Army's Nazi informants and reviews recruitment by other American and Allied intelligence services. Finally, it discusses the challenges of using ethical guidelines in recruiting secret agents, during the early Cold War and beyond."

Brown, Ralph W., III. "Removing 'Nasty Nazi Habits': The CIC and the Denazification of Heidelberg University, 1945-1946." Journal of Intelligence History 4, no. 1 (Summer 2004). []

From abstract: "At the end of World War II, the U.S. Army's Counter-Intelligence Corps (CIC) aided the U.S. Military Government in a less than successful effort to denazify Germany. Using as a case example the denazification of the Heidelberg University faculty,... [t]his study reveals some of the generally overlooked field level limitations on American post-World War II efforts to transform Germany."

Durr, Frank R., Sr. "A Short History of the US Army Counterintelligence Corps (CIC)." Intelligencer 14, no. 2 (Winter/Spring 2005): 91-96.

A brief, undocumented walk-through of CIC activities and mythology.

Edwards, Duval A. Spy Catchers of the U.S. Army in the War with Japan (The Unfinished Story of the Counterintelligence Corps). Gig Harbor, WA: Red Apple Publishing, 1994.

MI 21.2 notes that Spy Catchers "starts just before WWII and runs through the early Cold War years.... [O]nly one other book covers such a wide range of activities" -- Sayer and Botting, America's Secret Army (1989). Periscope 21.3 comments that "Edwards ... has written an informative, valuable and provocative book on a subject that has been neglected too long.... This is more than just a history of CIC operations.... It is an organizational history ... of the founding and demise of the Army CIC."

According to Surveillant 4.1, "Edwards ... tells how CIC operated in the Pacific Rim and how its agents overcame problems with the enemy and its own U.S. Army.... He also discusses the role of CIC in the U.S., especially its activities with the large Japanese population in Hawaii."

Franks, Lucinda. My Father's Secret War: A Memoir. [U.S.]: Miramax, 2007.

Pinck, OSS Society Newsletter (Spring 2007), notes that this is a story drawn bit by bit from the author's aging father, combined with "research into military intelligence records and her father's private correspondence.... This is a story of discovery and reconciliation, filled with superb research, and beautifully written."

Koudelka, Edward R. Counter Intelligence: The Conflict and the Conquest: Recollections of a World War II Agent in Europe. Guilderland, NY: Ranger, 1986.

Frazier, I&NS 2.4, identifies this work as the "reminiscence of a war-time CIC Special Agent of his recruitment, training, and service in Iceland, Britain, France, and Germany.... [T]he detailed description of missions and methods are of historical importance.... This is an accurate account of many of the early activities of the organization."

Lefebvre, Stéphane. "The U.S. Counterintelligence Corps and Czechoslovak Human Intelligence Operations, 1947-1972." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 19, no. 1 (Spring 2006): 120-133.

During the Cold War, "the StB was focused primarily on internal security.... While good at intimidating people, the StB performed rather poorly as an intelligence-gathering organization.... [footnote omitted] [T]he role played by the CIC in countering" Czechoslovak human intelligence operations against Western targets "must be recognized."

Melchior, Ib. Case by Case: A U.S. Army Counterintelligence Agent in World War II. Novato, CA: Presidio, 1993.

According to Peake, WIR 13.6, the author was in the United States when Germany occupied his native Denmark because his father, Lauritz Melchior, was singing in the Metropolitan Opera Company. Originally, Ib Melchior joined OSS but transferred to the Army's Counter Intelligence Corps (CIC). He served in France and Germany after D-Day. "This book describes firsthand tactical wartime and immediate postwar CI work.... This is a delightful book, not only because it is good reading, but also because it is a rare account of wartime CI ... and because it shows how applying CI basics produces results."

Ruffner, "CIC Records...," CSI Bulletin 11 (Summer 2000), comments that Melchior "describes in vivid detail his wartime activities and the people he encountered along the way. The nuances of World War II counter-intelligence are readily apparent in these memoirs." Wardinski, IJI&C 7.1, says that Melchior's "engaging ... exploits read like a classic spy story."

Mendelsohn, John, ed. The History of the Counter-Intelligence Corps (CIC). New York: Garland, 1987.

Milano, James V. [COL/USA (Ret.)], and Patrick Brogan. Soldiers, Spies, and the Rat Line: America's Undeclared War Against the Soviets. Washington, DC: Brassey's, 1996.

Ruffner, "CIC Records...," CSI Bulletin 11 (Summer 2000), notes that "[a]s the chief of the Operations Branch of the G-2, or Intelligence Section, of the headquarters of the United States Forces in Austria, Milano worked closely with the officers and special agents of the 430th CIC Detachment" from 1945 until 1950. This work "fleshes out many of the vignettes in CIC's official history."

According to Friedman, Parameters 27 (Summer 1997), this book "describes how U.S. military intelligence personnel ... became at first indirectly and then directly involved in providing cover and escape mechanisms for some former adversaries. It is a cautionary tale and one that should be kept in mind by future generations of military intelligence officers caught up in changing political situations."

Kruh, Cryptologia 20.3, comments that the author "recounts the exciting, sometimes rowdy, and, at times, amusing adventures of some of the first espionage efforts of the postwar era.... It is a riveting true story of the real world of intelligence during a precarious period of the Cold War."

To Cutler, Proceedings 122.4 (Apr. 1996), Milano's "secret operations designed to thwart the Soviet occupation forces in Austria" were "[h]ighly successful in some ways," but introduced "unforeseen complications in others.... This so-called 'rat line' unwittingly served as the means of escape for the 'Butcher of Lyons,' Klaus Barbie. Laced with humor and insightful revelations, this memoir serves as an unusual account of heretofore closely guarded methods and secrets."

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