General Overviews

F - H

Farago, Ladislas.

1. Burn After Reading: The Espionage History of World War II. New York: Walker, 1961. New York: MacFadden-Bartell, 1963. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2003.

Sexton sees this as a "broadly conceived history of intelligence in World War II," but notes that "Farago emphasizes the sensational." Commenting on the 2003 reissue, Bath, NIPQ 19.4, notes that "[c]onsidering the secrets, both cryptographic and operational,... released into the public domain" since its original publication, this work "has stood the test of time and recent scholarship remarkably well."

Kruh, Cryptologia 28.1, (2004) comments that "[t]his compelling account ... describes in colorful details the major exploits of the OSS, MI5, Abwehr, and Deuxième Bureau." In Cryptologia 30.2 (Apr. 2006), Kruh adds that this is "an interesting book that offers hours of reading pleasure."

2. The Game of the Foxes: The Untold Story of German Espionage in the United States and Great Britain During World War II. New York: David McKay Co., 1971. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1972.

For Constantinides, this is a book of "uneven quality, controversial claims, and questionable conclusions.... The author had a penchant for the dramatic and for exaggeration.... The book's principal fault is that it distorts the reality of German intelligence's effectiveness ... and gets some of the details wrong as well." Sexton refers to The Game of the Foxes as a "misleading but popular account of German espionage and double agency in the United States and Great Britain."

Funk, Arthur Layton, ed. American Commanders and the Use of Signal Intelligence. Manhatten, KS: Military Affairs/Aerospace Historian Publishing, Sunflower University Press, 1984.

This collection brings together six articles published elsewhere:

1. Deutsch, Harold C. "Clients of Ultra: American Captains." Parameters 15 (Summer 1985): 55-62.

The author discusses the attitudes of major U.S. commanders toward the Ultra intelligence. Patton may have made the best use of the material.

2. Cochran, Alexander S., Jr. "MacArthur, Ultra and the Pacific War, 1942-1944." See "MacArthur, Ultra et la Guerre du Pacifique." Revue d'histoire de la Deuxième Guerre Mondiale et des Conflits Contemporains 34 (Jan. 1984): 17-27.

Sexton notes that "Cochran emphasizes MacArthur's desire to control ULTRA and difficulties with Washington authorities."

3. Potter, E.B. "Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz and the Use of Intelligence in the Pacific Theater." See "L'Admiral Nimitz et Son Utilisation Des Renseignements Secrets dans la Pacifique." Revue d'histoire de la Deuxième Guerre Mondiale et des Conflits Contemporains 34 (Jan. 1984): 29-42.

Covers both the Battle of the Coral Sea and the Battle of Midway.

4. Button, Robert E. "ULTRA in the European Theater." See "Ultra sur le Theatre Europeen." Revue d'histoire de la Deuxième Guerre Mondiale et des Conflits Contemporains 34 (Jan. 1984): 43-52.

According to Sexton, "Button describes the role of ULTRA in the operations of the 6th Army Group and 7th U.S. Army in 1944-1945."

5. Gardner, Warner W. "Report on ULTRA Intelligence at Sixth Army Group." See "Les Renseignements Ultra au 6e Groupe d'Armées." Revue d'histoire de la Deuxième Guerre Mondiale et des Conflits Contemporains 34 (Jan. 1984): 53-59.

Sexton identifies Gardner as having served as an Ultra liaison officer with the 6th Army Group.

6. Bussey, Donald S. "ULTRA and the U.S. Seventh Army." See "ULTRA et la VIIe Armée Americane." Revue d'histoire de la Deuxième Guerre Mondiale et des Conflits Contemporains 34 (Jan. 1984): 59-64.

Sexton identifies Bussey as having served as an Ultra liaison officer with the 7th Army.

Halter, Jon C. Top Secret Projects of World War II. New York: Wanderer, 1978.

According to Sexton, the projects covered include Ultra, Magic, deception, V-weapons, and the atomic bomb.

Handel, Michael I., ed. Intelligence and Strategy in the Second World War. London: Frank Cass, 1990.

Surveillant 1.2 identifies this work as an "examination of the successes and failures of intelligence operations in various battle areas of WWII by a multi-national group of academics."

Hanyok, Robert J. Eavesdropping on Hell: Historical Guide to Western Communications Intelligence and the Holocaust, 1939-1945. Ft. George Meade, MD: National Security Agency, Center for Cryptologic History, 2005. [Available at:]

Aftergood, Secrecy News (from the FAS Project on Government Secrecy) 2005, no. 54 (8 Jun. 2005), refers to this work as a "major historical study of communications intelligence (COMINT) regarding the destruction of European Jewry and other targeted populations during World War II."

For Alvarez, I&NS 20.4 (Dec. 2005), "[t]his is a superb monograph" that "provides an informed overview of how American and British communication intelligence (Comint) agencies reported the Holocaust.... Those seeking a short [167 pages] but authoritative account of codebreaking and the Holocaust need look no further." Wolfe, Cryptologia 33.4 (Oct. 2009), calls this book "an interesting read, filled with facts and specific examples of decrypted intercepts. It contains an invaluable set of references for the reader who is interested in pursuing the topic."

Heinrichs, Waldo. Threshold of War: Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Entry into World War II. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Petersen: "Good coverage of intelligence factors in the events of 1940-1941."

Henhoeffer, William. The Intelligence War in 1941: A 50th Anniversary Perspective -- An Intelligence Monograph. Washington, DC: CIA, 1992.

Surveillant 2.5: "Intelligence played a significant role in helping the Allies to avoid defeats that otherwise would have occurred during the War."

Henze C. "Recollections of a Medical Intelligence Officer in World War II." Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 49, no. 11 (Nov. 1973): 960-973.

Hill, George J. Proceed to Peshawar: The Story of a U.S. Intelligence Mission on the Afghan Border, 1943. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2013.

Peake, Studies 58.3 (Sep. 2014), sys this "is a good record of a reconnaissance mission conducted under moderately adverse conditions," but it "is not about a Navy intelligence mission." For Baumann, Military Review (Jan.-Feb. 2015), the book "may not be entirely satisfying as history but captures rather well the sense of discovery that attended the mission." Its "principal drawbacks are the slim development of strategic context ... and the tendency to recount every incidental meeting with any individual who had anything whatsoever to do with the mission."

Hitchcock, Walter T. [COL], ed. The Intelligence Revolution: A Historical Perspective. Washington, DC: U.S. Air Force Academy/Office of Air Force History, 1988.  Washington, DC: GPO, 1992.

Clark comment: This book contains the proceedings of the Thirteenth Military History Symposium held at the U.S. Air Force Academy in 1988. The "revolution" is of intelligence collection and cooperation, particularly during World War II. This is a scholarly, not operational, work. Seymour says that the work "[p]rovides information on the origins of modern intelligence, intelligence during World War II and the Korean War, impact on postwar diplomacy, etc."

Hoopes, Townsend, and Douglas Brinkley. Driven Patriot: The Life and Times of James Forrestal. New York: Knopf, 1992.

Unsinger, IJI&C 7.4, describes Driven Patriot as "a well-balanced, easily readable, and informative account.... [T]he authors provide some insight into ... Forrestal's active support of covert operations.... Forrestal was an early player in the covert game unfolding before World War II," particularly in South America. After the war, Forrestal continued to support the use of covert action, including activities concerning the Ukraine, China, and the Italian elections of 1948. This book "is a good analysis of James Forrestal's life and times."

A review by Clay Blair, WPNWE, 4-10 May 1992, focuses on Forrestal's role in the services-unification battle, first, as Navy Secretary and, then, Defense Secretary. The book is judged to be a "very good, very professional job, with only a[n] occasional lapse." For Hyland, FA 71.4 (Jul.-Aug. 1992), this biography is "well-written" and "thoroughly researched and documented." However, the book "is somewhat too episodic, and the chronology occasionally leaves the reader confused." See also, Jeffrey M. Dorwart, Eberstadt and Forrestal: A National Security Partnership, 1909-1949 (College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 1991).

Howell, Fred Stanley. The Snoopers. New York: Vantage, 1992.

Surveillant 2.4: Covert action in World War II.


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