Far East and Pacific

China-Burma-India Theater

K - Z

Kush, Linda. The Rice Paddy Navy: U. S. Sailors Undercover in China -- Espionage and Sabotage Behind Enemy Lines During World War II. Oxford: Osprey, 2012.

According to Peake, Studies 57.3 (Sep 2013), and Intelligencer 20.2 (Fall-Winter 2013), the author "explains SACO's [Sino-American Cooperative Organization] origins and mission, interservice rivalries, tension with OSS, its relationship with the not always cooperative Chinese, and what its members tried to do." This "is an interesting and balanced view of SACO, one of the most controversial military units in WW II." Goulden, Washington Times, 19 Feb. 2013, and Intelligencer 19.3 (Winter-Spring 2013), finds that of the "several books ... published about the 'rice paddy navy,'" Kush's "is the most thorough exploration of the work of an extraordinary joint venture."

See also Miles, A Different Kind of War (1967), and Stratton, SACO -- The Rice Paddy Navy (1950).

McGee, George A., Jr. The History of the 2d Battalion, Merrill's Marauders: Northern Burma Campaign of 1944. Braunfels, TX: George A. McGee, Jr., 1987.

See also, Ogburn, The Marauders (1956).

McMichael, Scott R. [MAJ/USA] "Common Man, Uncommon Leadership: Colonal Charles N. Hunter with Galahad in Burma," Parameters 16, no. 2 (1986): 45-57. []

"Hunter was a perfectly ordinary officer with many faults whose performance, however, was extraordinary in the situation in which he was thrust.... Even as the command disintegrated, Galahad's officers and men knew that given the chance Hunter could pull tham together again. Distressed that he had obtained no special recognition, they felt a loyalty and esteem toward Hunter that few commanders can arouse."

Miles, Milton. A Different Kind of War: The Little Known Story of the Combined Guerrilla Forces Created in China by the U.S. Navy and the Chinese during World War II. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1967.

Constantinides: Miles tells the story of the Sino-American Cooperative Organization (SACO), which he co-headed. SACO was established to create joint U.S.-Nationalist Chinese intelligence and guerrilla warfare capabilities against the Japanese. Miles had significant disagreements with other U.S. activities operating in China. "What Miles had to say is partisan, and his conclusions in many instances are controversial." See also, Kush, The Rice Paddy Navy (2012) and Stratton, SACO -- The Rice Paddy Navy (1950).

Mishler, Clayton. Sampan Sailor: A Navy Man's Adventures in WWII China. Washington, DC: Brassey's, 1994.

Baxter, I&NS 12.3, identifies this work as the personal account of a "storekeeper/ courier in the Sino-American Co-operation Organization (SACO) between October 1943 and January 1946.... Mishler's book does not ... add significantly to our understanding of the role which SACO played in the complex web of Allied organizations that made up the Intelligence community in World War II China."

Northridge, A. R. "B-29s Against Coke Ovens." Studies in Intelligence 9, no. 3 (Summer 1965): 25-31.

The author was intelligence officer in Gen. Clare Chennault's 14th USAAF in Western China in World War II. When XXth Bomber Command was established for the B-29, its initial targets were to be the Japanese coke ovens -- a concept that created puzzlement and argument.

Ogburn, Charlton, Jr. The Marauders. New York: Harper, 1956. New York: Crest/Fawcett, 1964. [pb] New York: Ballantine, 1974. [pb]

Clark comment: The author served with Merrill's Marauders. Hunter, Studies 5.1 (Winter 1961), says that as "skillful a narrator as Ogburn is, he was not in a position to view the campaign in its command and intelligence aspects nor to take fully into account the failures in planning, coordination, and intelligence that characterized CBI Theater operations under General Joe Stllwell's erratic and nepotistical direction." See also, McGee, The History of the 2d Battalion, Merrill's Marauders (1987).

Prefer, Nathan N. Vinegar Joe's War: Stilwell's Campaigns for Burma. Novato, CA: Presido, 2000.

From publisher: The story of Merrill's Marauders "is told here, with colorful details on how the group effectively booted the Japanese out of the region and re-opened the 'Burma Road' to China."

Quesenberry, John M. "SIGINT in World War II: Personal Reminiscences of an Intercept Operator in China." American Intelligence Journal 15, no. 1 (Spring/Summer 1994): 59-65.

The author was assigned to the U.S. Embassy in Chungking, Szechuan Province, from 8 July 1942, monitoring "all radio traffic for the Embassy." In [?April-May 1943], he moved to the U.S. Naval Group China, Fox station, where he did intercept and traffic analysis. The U.S. presence later expanded to "ten or more 'Out' stations." Quesenberry departed 8 July 1944.

Rasor, Eugene L. The China-Burma-India Campaign, 1931-1945: Historiography and Annotated Bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1998.

From publisher: "The literature [on the CBI theater] is extensive and this book provides an evaluative survey of that vast literature. A comprehensive compilation of some 1,500 titles, the work includes a narrative historiographical overview and an annotated bibliography of the titles covered in the historiographical section."

Stratton, Roy Olin. SACO -- The Rice Paddy Navy. Pleasantcille, NY: C.S. Palmer, 1950. Fredericksburg, TX: Nimitz Foundation, 2004.

Constantinides identifies Stratton as a naval commander in the supply department of the Sino-American Cooperative Organization (SACO). The focus here is not on SACO's operational activities, but on "anecdotes of life in that particular organization and details of its many housekeeping, logistical, administrative, and personal activities." For operational details, the reader must seek out Miles, A Different Kind of War (1967). See also Kush, The Rice Paddy Navy (2012).

Tuchman, Barbara W. Stilwell and the American Experience in China, 1911-45. New York: Macmillan, 1970.

Petersen notes that this work includes Stillwell's "1930s China duty as a military attaché." Clark comment: Beginning on p. 229, Tuchman covers World War II and its immediate aftermath (Stillwell died in 1946).

Wasserstein, Bernard. Secret War In Shanghai: Treachery, Subversion and Collaboration in the Second World War. London: Profile, 1998. Secret War in Shanghai: An Untold Story of Espionage, Intrigue, and Treason in World War II. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1999.

Pye, FA 79.2 (Mar.-Apr. 2000), believes that the author "has brillantly captured both the ambiance of the time and the personalities of its many shady actors.... Shanghai's self-contained social world kept the intelligence agencies so busy that it did not seem to matter that their activities had almost no effect on the war itself." However, Wilkinson, JMH 64.3, finds too much effort to sensationalize here, calling the book "tabloid history." And the connection with the broader war is tenuous, since "[m]ost of the people [Wasserstein] writes about were agents acting in their own behalf."

To Mercado, Intelligencer 11.1, Wasserstein "delivers little of what is implicitly promised" by the book's title, dust jacket, and introduction. The author "fails to tell a compelling tale of the secret war in Shanghai by paying attention to the history's characters in inverse proportion to their importance.... [He] all but ignore[s] the Japanese and Chinese principals in Shanghai's shadow war, ... [and] fails even to give a decent accounting of American and British intelligence operations."

Wedemeyer, Albert C. [GEN/USA] Wedemeyer Reports! New York: Devin-Adair, 1958.

Wichtrich, A.R. MIS-X: Top Secret. Raleigh, NC: Pentland Press, 1997.

Seamon, Proceedings 124.8 (Aug. 1998), notes that the author commanded the Air Ground Aid Section (AGAS), "a covert Army intelligence outfit that operated in China through most of World War II and helped to rescue some 900 U.S. aviators who had been shot down or crash landed."

Winborn, Byron R. Wen Bon: A Naval Air Intelligence Officer Behind Japanese Lines in China in WWII. Denton, TX: University of North Texas Press, 1994.

Bates, NIPQ 13.1, notes that Winborn, who arrived in China in February 1945, tells a "fast moving, first-person narrative" of his service in Nanping and, after the end of the war, in Shanghai. His job during the war was to "take charge of all crashed or captured enemy air equipment" within his area of responsibility.

Yu, Maochun. "Chinese Codebreakers, 1927-45." Intelligence and National Security 14, no. 1 (Spring 1999): 201-213.

The author surveys KMT Sigint efforts, including the early work of T.V. Soong's nephew, Y.C. Wen (Wen Yuqing); Tai Li's radio intelligence activities against the Japanese; Yardley's advanced training of Chinese cryptanalysts; the activities of SACO; and efforts toward international cooperation in Sigint with the British and Americans. He concludes that interservice rivalries among the Nationalist forces and "fundamental distrust and suspicion" between the British and the Chinese "obviated the strategic value of China's codebreaking skills to the Allied war effort."

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