The Neutral Countries Generally


Alvarez, David. "No Immunity: Signals Intelligence and the European Neutrals, 1939-45." Intelligence and National Security 12, no. 2 (Apr. 1997): 22-43.

The Allied powers "systematically attack[ed] the cryptosystems of all the neutrals.... Axis Sigint operations against the neutrals seem fitful and unsystematic.... This situation was, in large part, the result of inadequate or poorly-exploited human resources.... For the European neutrals the brutal reality was that there was no protection against the communications war.... While some neutrals (the Vatican) were better able to evade this surveillance than others (Turkey), none proved invulnerable."

Fodor, Denis J. The Neutrals. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1982.

Petersen: "Includes espionage war in neutral nations of Europe."

Wylie, Neville.

1. "SOE and the Neutrals." In Special Operations Executive: A New Instrument of War, ed. Mark Seaman, 157-178. London : Routledge, 2006. [Capet]

2. ed. European Neutrals and Non-Belligerents during the Second World War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

From publisher: The articles in this collection "focus on how individual neutral governments perceived international developments and reveal the domestic political circumstances that critically affected their response to the course of the war."

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