Operations Against the United States and the United Kingdom

A - F

Breuer, William B. Hitler's Underground War: The Nazi Espionage Invasion of the U.S. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989. Nazi Spies in America: Hitler's Undercover War. New York: St. Martin's, 1990. [pb]

Cohen, Stan, and Don DeNevi, with Richard Gay. They Came to Destroy America: The FBI Goes to War against Nazi Spies and Saboteurs Before and During World War II. Missoula, MT: Pictorial Histories Publishing, 2003.

EAB, AFIO WIN 25-03, 27 Jun. 2003, says that this work "covers the German subversion networks in the Eastern U.S. during the years leading up to" World War II and "German U-boat intelligence operations and subsequent FBI round-ups and trials of German would-be spies" as the country went to war.

Doerries, JIH 6.2 (Winter 2006-2007), finds this to be "a rather impressive collection of photographs and documents relating to German agents and their actual and planned activities in and against the U.S. prior to and in the course of World War II.... The illustrations are generally of high quality and the texts reproduced are readable.... To be used even more effectively in college history courses, publisher and authors would be well advised to correct a few printing errors, add some footnotes with information concerning the most relevant archival holdings and, most of all, include a name index."

Dobbs, Michael. Saboteurs: The Nazi Raid on America. New York: Knopf, 2004. New York: Vintage, 2005. [pb]

Citino, World War II ( notes that this is the tale of two small groups of German saboteurs who were landed by submarine near Amagansett, Long Island, and Jacksonville, Florida, in June 1942 (Operation Pastorius). The author "is a fine writer, and many readers will find themselves unable to put down the book once they start. His characterizations are on the money, and his eye for the telling detail is superb."

For Peake, Studies 48.4 (2004), "the depth of detail and the particular relevance to current legal decisions facing the government concerning the use of military tribunals to deal with agents or combatants of a foreign government" makes Saboteurs "especially pertinent." The author "has used primary and secondary sources mixed with interviews of participants to write an important history in a way that makes for stimulating reading."

Etzold, Thomas H. "The (F)utility Factor: German Information Gathering in the United States, 1933-1941." Military Affairs 39 (Apr. 1975): 77-82. [ usamhi/RefBibs/intell/ww2/genmisc.htm]

Evans, Michael. "MI5 Papers: Spy Sent to Lure RAF Officers." Times (London), 27 Jan. 1999.

MI5 files released on 26 January 1996 reveal that Vera Eriksen, a 28-year-old former ballet dancer, had only a brief career as a German spy in World War II. Eriksen "landed in a boat on the Scottish coast with two other agents in September 1940, was immediately arrested and was sent to MI5's interrogation centre at Latchmere House on Ham Common, southwest London.... She was interned for the rest of the war."

Farago, Ladislas. The Game of the Foxes: The Untold Story of German Espionage in the United States and Great Britain During World War II. New York: David McKay, 1971. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1972.

For Constantinides, this is a book of "uneven quality, controversial claims, and questionable conclusions.... The author had a penchant for the dramatic and for exaggeration.... The book's principal fault is that it distorts the reality of German intelligence's effectiveness ... and gets some of the details wrong as well." Sexton refers to The Game of the Foxes as a "misleading but popular account of German espionage and double agency in the United States and Great Britain."

Firmin, Stanley. They Came to Spy. London: Hutchinson, 1946.

Wilcox: "Account of German espionage in England during World War II."

Fisher, Louis. Nazi Saboteurs on Trial: A Military Tribunal and American Law. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2003.

Peake, Studies 48.4 (2004), notes that the author "emphasizes the legal aspects ... and characterizes the tribunal approach as ill-conceived."

For Doerries, JIH 6.2 (Winter 2006-2007), Fisher "presents a thoughtful collection of pros and cons on the question of trying persons before a military tribunal. The danger of an erosion of the constitutional rights of persons charged in the U.S. is evident, and categorization into citizens, non-citizens, legal aliens, illegal aliens, etc. does not really allay that concern.... The author's conclusion that 'the Nazi saboteur case represented an unwise and ill-conceived concentration of power in the executive branch' (p. 172) is one of several legal -- and political -- opinions in the ongoing debate."

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