Aid, Matthew M. "'Stella Polaris' and the Secret Code Battle in Postwar Europe." Intelligence and National Security 17, no. 3 (Autumn 2002): 17-86.

In September 1944, the Finnish intelligence service was evacuated to Sweden in Operation "Stella Polaris." This article discusses the role of the OSS and its successor, the Strategic Services Unit (SSU), in "Stella Polaris" and its aftermath. "The OSS Stockholm Station purchased Soviet and other foreign code and cipher materials" from the Finnish service, "not realizing until later that the Finns had sold the same material to other states." In response, the OSS/SSU recruited "some well-placed agents within the ... 'Stella Polaris' organization, who provided detailed information about the intelligence activities of the Finns in Sweden, and the work of Finnish intelligence officers in France after the end of the war."

Cederberg, Jörgen, and Göran Elgemyr. "Operation 'Stella Polaris' -- Nordic Intelligence Cooperation in the Closing Stages of World War II." In Clio Goes Spying: Eight Essays on the History of Intelligence, eds. Wilhelm Agrell and Bo Huldt. Lund, Sweden: Scandinavian University Books, 1983.

Holmström, Lauri. "Finland in American Intelligence, 1941-1944." Intelligence and National Security 25, no. 4 (Aug. 2010): 479-499.

"The good pre-war relations between Finland and the United States were of vital importance during the Second World War.... At times, the task of intelligence was to substitute for official connections in a period when normal state-to-state were not possible to maintain."

Kahn, David. "Finland's Codebreaking in World War II." In In the Name of Intelligence: Essays in Honor of Walter Pforzheimer, eds. Hayden B. Peake and Samuel Halpern, 329-347. Washington, DC: NIBC Press, 1994.

Rislakki, IJI&C 21.3 (Fall 2008), p. 485/fn. 52, calls this a "well-informed article."

McKay, C.G. "Anglo-Finnish SIGINT Cooperation, 1940-1941." Journal of Intelligence History 3, no. 1 (Summer 2003): 69-81. []

Abstract: "The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact gave a new actuality to the necessity of expanding British coverage of Soviet signals traffic. The author introduces and comments upon a number of British documents dealing with British cooperation with the Finnish Radio Intelligence Service in the months leading up to Barbarossa."

Rislakki, Jukka. "Finland's Military Intelligence in War and Peace." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 21, no. 3 (Fall 2008): 461-486.

"The present article was written to provide a general survey of the topic for American readers without a reading knowledge of Finnish." (p. 479/fn. 1)

Return to Other Countries - Finland

Return to WWII Europe Table of Contents