Berndorff, H.R. Spionage! [Espionage]. 31st ed. Stuttgart: Dieck, 1929. Tr., Bernard Miall. Espionage. London: Eveleigh Nash, 1930. New York: Appleton, 1930.

H. Roewer: "A sampler of espionage stories, mostly untrue."

Boucard, Robert.The Secret Services of Europe. London: Stanley Paul, 1940.

Constantinides comments that "Boucard's allegations of German intelligence successes in Russia either have been refuted or have never been substantiated."

Finnegan, Terrence J. [COL/USAFR (Ret.)]

1. "The Origins of Modern Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance: Military Intelligence at the Front, 1914-18." Studies in Intelligence 53, no. 4 (Dec. 2009): 21-34.

"Military intelligence evolved as a significant force" in World War I. "Traditional intelligence methods quickly gave way to a jugggernaut of technological innovation.... Most significantly, aviation defined the role of intelligence in industrial age warfare."

2. Shooting the Front: Allied Aerial Reconnaissance and Photographic Interpretation on the Western Front -- World War I. Washington, DC: National Defense Intelligence College, 2006.

Boghardt, Studies 51.4 (2007), is enthusiastic about this work: "Shooting the Front is a massive, expertly written and richly illustrated history of British, French and American aerial surveillance on the Western Front. The book's findings are based on meticulous archival research.... Finnegan's prose is precise and clear, and he provides the necessary historical context to make his work accessible to expert and layman alike."

For Titus, Air & Space Power Journal 26.4 (Jul.-Aug. 2012), this work "represents a monumental effort to provide an in-depth examination" of World War I aerial reconnaissance and photographic interpretation, "important but understudied aspects of the air war." This work "iis well written throughout and graced by numerous period photographs, maps, and drawings."

Flicke, Wilhelm F. "The Early Development of Communications Intelligence." Studies in Intelligence 3, no. 1 (Winter 1959): 99-114.

The author traces the development of radio intercept and codebreaking in World War I. "There is a certain irony in the fact that at the very time when the Russians in the east were exposing themselves by clumsy use of radio so disasterously that the course of the Battle of Tannenberg wrecked their entire blitz campaign, the Germans in the west should be making the same mistake with the same result.... In the east, it was the Battle of Tannenberg; in the west it was the Battle of the Marne."

On Tannenberg, see also, Richard N. Armstrong, "Tactical Triumph at Tannenberg," Military History 14, no. 3 (Aug. 1997): 58-64, 80; and John M. Denkler, "Tannenberg," Cryptolog 15, no. 1 (Jan. 1994): 3, 17-18.

Gylden, Yves. The Contributions of the Cryptographic Bureaus in the World War. Washington. DC: GPO, 1935. Laguna Hills, CA: Aegean Park Press, n.d.

Constantinides: "Strictly speaking, Gylden has recounted the history of military cryptology, not the broader field the title implies. Much of what he writes is from the French, Austrian, and German experiences.... There is nothing on British accomplishments in military cryptology." Nevertheless, experts in the field give the book high marks.

Lasswell, Harold D. Propaganda Technique in the World War. New York: Knopf, 1927. London: Kegan Paul, 1938. New York: Peter Smith, 1938. [pb] Propaganda Technique in World War I. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1971. [pb]

Lerner at MIT Press: "This classic book on propaganda technique focuses on American, British, French, and German experience in World War I. The book sets forth a simple classification of various psychological materials used to produce certain specific results and proposes a general theory of strategy and tactics for the manipulation of these materials."

Morgan, W.A. "Invasion on the Ether: Radio Intelligence at the Battle of St. Mihiel, September 1918." Military Affairs 51, no. 2 (Apr. 1987): 57-61.

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