World War II


Elyesa Bazna (Cicero) was the personal valet to the British ambassador in Turkey, Sir Hughe Knatchbull-Hugessan. Moyzisch, the RSHA VI representative at the German Embassy under cover as a commercial attache, was his case officer. Bazna regularly photographed documents in the ambassador's possession. David Kahn, Hitler's Spies, pp. 342-346, suggests that the intelligence was used both by the German ambassador, Franz von Papen, and by policy-makers in Berlin, but only in a "secondary way." Anthony Cave Brown, Bodyguard of Lies, pp. 435-450, raises the possibility that Barza's access was controlled and the product of a British deception operation. The story is recounted in the film Five Fingers, with James Mason as Cicero.

New Foreign Office documents pertaining to the Cicero case were released to the British National Archives on 1 April 2005. See http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/releases/2005/highlights_april/april1/default.htm.

Baxter, Christopher. "Forgeries and Spies: The Foreign Office and the 'Cicero' Case." Intelligence and National Security 23, no. 6 (Dec. 2008): 807-826.

"Cicero was able to bring off a major espionage coup through bad security in the British embassy in Ankara and this was largely [due] to [Ambassador Hughe Knatchbull] Hugessen's own carelessness.... Although the damage done was probably not very important, the potential danger was enormous."

Bazna, Elyesa, with Hans Nogly. I Was Cicero. New York: Harper & Row, 1962. New York: Dell, 1964. [pb]

Pforzheimer says that Bazna presents an "interesting account," but I Was Cicero should "be read ... with Moyzisch's Operation Cicero."

Denniston, Robin. Churchill's Secret War: Diplomatic Decrypts, the Foreign Offcie and Turkey 1942-44. London: Sutton, 1997. New York: St. Martin's, 1997.

According to Kruh, Cryptologia 21.3, the author uncovered some previously unknown files of diplomatic intercepts that provide "a broader view of Churchill's role in British foreign policy and war planning." Included is new information on the Cicero spy affair.

Elliott, Nicholas. Never Judge a Man by His Umbrella. Salisbury: Michael Russell, 1991. [pb] London: Chatto and Windus, 1992.

According to Surveillant 2.2, Elliott was the "lifelong chum of -- and one of the debriefers of -- Kim Philby."

Defty, I&NS 10.1, remarks that Elliott "manages to recall his life from childhood to the present day without once revealing that he was ever in SIS." His account of his overseas' assignments "reveals more about the social whirl of a British diplomat than it does about the life of an intelligence officer.... Yet ... Elliott offers a balanced and incisive account of Germany's most successful agent operation in Turkey, the case of the German agent Cicero." Elliott's account of his "confrontation with Philby in Beirut ... offers little in the way of new information, and fails to resolve the controversy surrounding" that meeting.

Keatts, Dorothy. "Footnote to Cicero." Studies in Intelligence 1, no. 4 (Fall 1957): 47-53.

The author's "footnote" deals with how her American contact got German military attache Moyzisch's secretary, the neurotic but anti-Nazi Nele Kapp, out of Turkey.

Kersaudy, François. L'Affaire Cicéron. Paris: Perrin, 2005.

Kahn, Intelligencer 17.1 (Winter-Spring 2009), characterizes this work as "[w]ell written, fast-paced, but little new."

Moyzisch, L.C. Operation Cicero. New York: Coward-McCann, 1950. New York: Bantam, 1952. [pb] New York: Pyramid, 1958. [pb]

Pforzheimer sees this book as being written too soon after the events to "take into account later accounts and evaluations, including the possibility that the British ... [used the operation] for deception purposes of their own." To Constantinides, the author's declaration that only he knew all the facts was "hasty." His knowledge of the case, while first-hand, was only of the German side. Keatts, Studies 1.4 (Fall 1957), refers to Operation Cicero as "a competent and factual piece of work."

Wires, Richard. The Cicero Spy Affair: German Access to British Secrets in World War II. Westport, CT, and London: Praeger, 1999. New York: Enigma, 2008. [pb]

Fischer, I&NS 16.2, notes that the author "presents a revisionist account" of the Cicero story, as he "sorts out truth from fiction." He also "performs a debunking operation by showing how various accounts, including memoirs written by Bazna himself, his SD handler Ludwig Moyzisch, and German ambassador Franz von Papen, distorted the operation for their own purposes.... Wires' book is the definitive account of Operation 'Cicero.'"

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