Post-World War II

Northern Ireland & the IRA

A - G

See http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/: CAIN (Conflict Archive on the INternet) is devoted to providing a wide range of information and source material on the Northern Ireland conflict and politics in the region from 1968 to the present. The web site was made available in March 1997. CAIN is based within the University of Ulster and is located at the Magee Campus.

Bamford, Bradley H.C. "The Role and Effectiveness of Intelligence in Northern Ireland." Intelligence and National Security 20, no. 4 (Dec. 2005): 581-607.

"British intelligence was ultimately very effective in the Northern Ireland conflict, but at a price of employing some highly dubious methods."

Bell, J. Bowyer. "Dragonworld (II): Deception, Tradecraft, and the Provisional IRA." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 8, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 21-50.

Boyd, Andrew. The Informers: A Chilling Account of the Supergrasses in Northern Ireland. Dublin: Mercier Press, 1984.

Boyne, Sean. Gunrunners: The Covert Arms Trail to Ireland. Dublin: O'Brien, 2006.

From publisher: "With interviews with the dealers, agents and traffickers involved in the movement of huge quantities of arms into Ireland in the 1970s and 1980s, Sean Boyle exposes many of the little-known aspects of this part of Irish history, such as the IRA's connections to the KGB and Libya."

Bradley, Anthony. Requiem for a Spy: The Killing of Robert Nairac. Cork and Dublin: Mercier Press, 1992.

Charters, David A. "Intelligence and Psychological Warfare Operations in Northern Ireland." RUSI Journal 122, no. 3 (Sep. 1977).

Clarke, Liam.

1. "The British Spy at Heart of IRA." Sunday Times (London), 8 Aug. 1999. [http://www.the-times.co.uk]

"Britain's spy network in Northern Ireland finds that money talks. A senior IRA figure in the province is the army's top agent, earning up to £60,000 a year for vital information.... [A] former spymaster [using the pseudonym of "Martin Ingram"] ... reveals how the system works.... The former soldier says he decided to go public as a contribution to the understanding of the history of the Troubles which, he now believes, are largely over."

2. "MI5 'Operated Network of Garda Agents.'" Sunday Times (London), 8 Aug. 1999. [http://www.the-times.co.uk]

MI5 "maintained a network of paid agents within the Garda Siochana and had a member of the Senate on its payroll," according to "Martin Ingram," a former military intelligence officer who chooses to remain anonymous in self-protection.

3. "Deadly Friends, Deadly Enemies." Sunday Times (London), 22 Aug. 1999. [http://www.the-times.co.uk]

Again working with information from "Martin Ingram," Clarke this time tells the story of British spy Frank Hegarty killed in 1986 after his cover was blown in an Irish-British raid on arms caches he had helped arrange. Hegarty had worked, first, for British military intelligence and, later, for Field Research Unit. The lead to this story notes that "The Ministry of Defence tried to block this story so some facts have been withheld," thus setting up the follow-on story (below).

4. "Lifting Lid on Whitehall's Baffling Code of Secrecy." Sunday Times (London), 22 Aug. 1999. [http://www.the-times.co.uk]

"[T]he Ministry of Defence and Treasury solicitor's office..., for the past fortnight, fought a rearguard action to gag The Sunday Times and prevent it from publishing the story of one military intelligence agent, Frank Hegarty.... In the end we agreed to submit this week's article [for review] in order to avoid a court battle that could have delayed further publication indefinitely."

Collins, Eamon. Killing Rage. New York: Granta Books, 1997.

According to West, History 26.1, the author was a Provisional Irish Republican Army informant who switched sides in 1985.

Craig, Tony. "Sabotage! The Origins, Development and Impact of the IRA's Intrastructural Bombing Campaigns 1939-1997." Intelligence and National Security 25, no. 3 (Jun. 2010): 309-326.

The author looks at the IRA's bombings in Britain in 1939-1940, the PIRA bombings in Northern Ireland in 1971, and the intercepted operation against London in 1996.

Davies, Nicholas. Ten-thirty-three: The Inside Story of Britain's Secret Killing Machine in Northern Ireland. Edinburgh: Mainstream, 1999.

From publisher: This "book reveals the conspiracy between British Military Intelligence and the gunman" of the Ulster Defense Association. The "partnership was sanctioned at the highest level of the British government and full details of planned operations ... were passed directly" to the JIC. "Ten-Thirty-Three was the codename given to the agent who was fed with all the details necessary for Loyalist gunmen to carry out their murderous activities." But Ten-Thirty-Three' "became increasingly unpredictable. It wasn't long before he was completely out of control, and his Military Intelligence bosses had the makings of a major catastrophe on their hands."

Doherty, Frank. The Stalker Affair: Including an Account of British Secret Service Operations in Ireland. Cork and Dublin: Mercier, 1986.

Jeffrey, I&NS 3.2, finds that the author is "a confirmed conspiracist" whose "sensational expose" is "outrageous." See also, Frank Stalker, Stalker (1988) and Peter Taylor, Stalker: The Search for the Truth (1987).

Donohue, Laura. Counter-Terrorist Law and Emergency Powers in the United Kingdom, 1922-2000. Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 2001.

Ford, Sarah. One Up: A Woman in Action with the SAS. London: HarperCollins, 1997. New York: HarperCollins, 1997. [pb]

According to CASIS Intelligence Newsletter 31/28, this autobiographical book describes the author's "two years as a member of the 14 Intelligence Company of the British Special Air Service (SAS)." The unit, formed in 1974, "provide[s] surveillance in the most hostile parts of Northern Ireland." West, History 26.1, notes that this book is written by the first woman member of this "extraordinarily secretive" unit. The organization "mounts highly sophisticated surveillance operations." See also, James Rennie, The Operators (1997).

Geraghty, Tony. The Irish War: A Military History of a Domestic Conflict. London: HarperCollins, 1998. The Irish War: The Hidden Conflict Between the IRA and British Intelligence. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins, 2000. 2002. [pb]

A reviewer for Publisher's Weekly, 8 May 2000, comments that the portion of the book dealing with the last 30 years is "highly opinionated." Nevertheless, the book's strengths are found in "its attention to detail and its direct, potent writing." Moore, Library Journal, 15 Apr. 2000, finds that "[t]he role of British Intelligence in Ulster has never been so deeply explored." While the book is "[n]ot objectively written," it is "clearly well researched."

Gilmour, Raymond. Dead Ground: Infiltrating the IRA. London: Little & Brown, 1998. New York: Warner Futura, 1999.

The author was an RUC informer in Derry PIRA.

Hermon, John [Sir]. Holding the Line. Dublin: Gil and Macmillan, 1997.

According to West, History 26.1, Hermon is a retired chief constable of the Royal Ulster Constabulary. West notes that Hermon's book, read in conjunction with John Stalker's autobiography, Stalker (1988), produces "a compelling conflict that demonstrates the complexity of everything that happens in Ireland."

Holland, Jack, and Susan Phoenix. Phoenix: Policing the Shadows. London: Hodder, 1997.

From publisher: "A controversial insight into the RUC by the widow of anti-terrorist officer Ian Phoenix, who was killed in the Chinook crash of 1994 along with 24 other top anti-terrorist intelligence officers." West, History 26.1, notes that Holland "has used the diaries of the late Ian Phoenix to describe the detective's life running agents into the paramilitaries" in Northern Ireland.

Ilardi, Gaetano Joe. "Irish Republican Army Counterintelligence." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 23, no. 1 (Spring 2010): 1-26.

"Through its ability to strengthen group cohesion, provide a sense of mission and purpose, and create images of an ominipotent and ubiquitous organization, the IRA's counterintelligence activities were central to its capacity to function as a terrorist organization."

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