General Books and Articles

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Prados, John, ed. America Confronts Terrorism: Understanding the Danger and How to Think About It. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2002.

Scott-Smith, JIH 4.2, notes that this work brings together "the major US government documents of the past fifteen years that have examined and analysed the terrorist threat." Prados "lets the documents speak for themselves, only adding minimal (but generally telling) observations at the beginning of each section." However, much of the "content [of this collection] has since been superceded by the 2004 report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States and other assessments."

Pugliese, David. Shadow Wars: Special Forces in the New Battle against Terrorism. Ottawa: Esprit de Corps Books, 2003.

From Publisher: From Afghanistan to Iraq, this book "details operations by U.S. Army Green Berets and Delta Force, U.S. Navy SEALs, Air Force and CIA special operations troops, along with Australia's Special Air Service, the British SAS and SBS, Poland's GROM, and Canada's JTF2. Also recounted is the highly-controversial raid by Russia's Alpha Group to rescue hostages held by Chechen terrorists in Moscow in the fall of 2002."

Rapoport, David. "The Fourth Wave." Current History 100 (Dec. 2001): 419-425.

Record, Jeffrey. Bounding the Global War on Terrorism. Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2003.

Renfer, Marc A., and Henriette S. Haas. "Systematic Analysis in Counterterrorism: Messages on an Islamist Internet-Forum." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 21, no. 2 (Summer 2008): 314-336.

From "Introduction" by Urs Von Daeniken, Director of the Swiss Intelligence Service (SAP): "While advanced methods of intelligence analysis, such as the described, cannot replace author identification, they are still useful for a preliminary evaluation of a given situation in order to determine which sites or individuals should be more closely observed or even investigated."

Riedel, Bruce. "Al Qaeda Strikes Back." Foreign Affairs 86, no. 3 (May-Jun. 2007): 24-40.

"By rushing into Iraq instead of finishing off the hunt for Osama bin Laden, Washington has unwittingly helped its enemies: al Qaeda has more bases, more partners, and more followers today than it did on the eve of 9/11. Now the group is working to set up networks in the Middle East and Africa.... Washington must focus on attacking al Qaeda's leaders and ideas and altering the local conditions in which they thrive."

Riley, K. Jack, et al. State and Local Intelligence in the War on Terrorism. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2005. Available at: http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG394/index.html.

"This report ... examin[es] how state and local law enforcement agencies conducted and supported counterterrorism intelligence activities after 9/11. It analyzes data from a 2002 survey of law enforcement preparedness in the context of intelligence and reports the results of case studies showing how eight local law enforcement agencies handle intelligence operations. Finally, it suggests ways that the job of gathering and analyzing intelligence might best be shared among federal, state, and local agencies."

Risen, James. State of War: The Secret History of the CIA and the Bush Administration. New York: Free Press, 2006.

Clark comment: This is the author's version of the war on terrorism. In part because it was preceded by the articles in the New York Times on NSA's domestic surveillance activities, the book has been causing ripples since day one of its publication.

Ensor, CNN, 4 Jan. 2006, reports that according to State of War "[s]everal U.S. agents in Iran were rounded up after the CIA mistakenly revealed clues to their identities to a covert source who turned out to be a double agent.... [W]hile confirming the mistake, knowledgeable current and former officials told CNN that the allegations that agents were lost as a result are not true.... CIA Director of Public Affairs Jennifer Millerwise Dyke issued this statement [on 3 January 2006] about Risen's book: [Excerpt] 'Readers deserve to know that every chapter of "State of War" contains serious inaccuracies. The author's reliance on anonymous sources begs the reader to trust that these are knowledgeable people. As this book demonstrates, anonymous sources are often unreliable.'"

Peake, Studies 50.3 (Sep. 2006) and Intelligencer 15.2 (Fall-Winter 2006-2007), concludes that "[w]hat we have ... is a collection of newspaper columns in book form that leaves the readers either wondering how much is true or rather satisfied that it proves the preconceived notions they have long held.... On the continuum of journalistic and societal value, State of War is less typical of the contributions of former New York Times reporter James (Scotty) Reston and more like those of author Kitty Kelly."

For Freedman, FA 85.3 (May-Jun. 2006), the author has produced "a short and at times disjointed book, packed with startling stories, a number of which appear to be true." [Clark comment: What about the others?] Risen "focuses on the 'secret history" without bothering to explain the known history that would provide context."

Shafer, Slate, 3 Jan. 2006, argues that the newspaper version of Risen's NSA surveillance story is "more accurate and disciplined" than the book version. "The fundamental difference between good book chapters and good newspaper articles boils down to this: The highest journalistic standard in New York book publishing is one of liability. 'Did we libel anybody?' At newspapers like the Times it is, 'Is it true?'"

To Prados, I&NS 23.5 (Oct. 2008), this book proved to be a "disappointment.... [It] contains nuggets of interest but does not rise to the level of a 'history,' secret or otherwise." Byman, Washington Post, 15 Jan. 2006, finds this work "fascinating and frustrating." The author "delivers a series of anecdotes that, while entertaining, often lack sufficient nuance, sourcing or context." And Risen "doesn't help readers understand the tradeoffs and constraints that policymakers and intelligence professionals face.... Good war stories, however colorful, do not make a great book."

Ratnesar, Time, 9 Jan. 2006, comments that while the book "covers ground that is broadly familiar," it also "is punctuated with a wealth of previously unreported tid bits about covert meetings, aborted CIA operations and Oval Office outbursts." The author's "reporting isn't bulletproof.... [H]e relies heavily on anonymous sources, and several anecdotes ... are attributed to a lone leaker."

Roberts, Mark J. "Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate: A State within a State?" Joint Force Quarterly 48 (1st Quarter 2008): 104-110.

"Is it possible to carry out effective, combined U.S.-Pakistani counterterrorism operations yet encourage structural reforms within Pakistan's security organs with any hope of success? While the easy answer is to continue the war on terror and maintain the status quo, ignoring Pakistan's structural deficiencies, this path of least resistance has potentially deadly ramifications."

Rudner, Martin. "Hunters and Gatherers: The Intelligence Coalition against Islamic Terrorism." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 17, no. 2 (Summer 2004): 193-230.

Reviewing cooperation among and between nations in the war on terrorism, the author concludes that "the post-11 September mobilization against terrorism has prompted an escalated effort at intelligence cooperation based more firmly on the respective comparative advantages of the participating intelligence agenciers."

Rudner, Martin.

1. "Protecting North America's Energy Infrastructure against Terrorism." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 19, no. 3 (Fall 2006): 424-442.

The author argues for "a shift to an intelligence-led strategy for critical national infrastructure protection."

2. "Protecting Critical Energy Infrastructure Through Intelligence." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 21, no. 4 (Winter 2008-2009): 635-660.

"Called for is a robust, proactive, calibrated, intelligence-led system for the protection of critical energy infrastructure."

Rudner, Martin. "Using Financial Intelligence against the Funding of Terrorism." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 19, no. 1 (Spring 2006): 32-58.

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