1. George and Marisol Gari
2. Noshir Gowadia
3. James W. Hall, III
4. Maurice Halperin
5. Victor N. Hamilton
6. Kitty Harris
7. Joseph G. Helmich, Jr.
8. Gerardo Hernandez
9. Robert Lee Johnson
Materials in each listing presented chronologically.
Seper, Jerry. "Couple Charged as Spies." Washington Times, 1 Sep. 2001. [http://www. washtimes.com]
George and Marisol Gari were arrested on 31 August 2001 and charged with "conspiracy to act as agents of a foreign government without proper identification or notice to the attorney general." U.S. authorities say that they were members of "the largest Cuban spy ring ever detected,... 'La Red Avispa,' or the Wasp Network, five members of whom were convicted in June of conspiring to spy on the United States for Fidel Castro's regime."
Reuters, 23 Sep. 2001, reports that Marisol Gari has "pleaded guilty to one count of conspiracy to act as an unregistered agent for Cuba.... George Gari pleaded guilty ... to one count of acting as an unregistered agent for Cuba." According to the Associated Press, 7 Jan. 2002, George Gari was sentenced to a federal prison term of seven years, and Marisol Gari to 3 1/2 years.
Regan, Tom. "More Charges against B2 Bomber Designer Accused of Spying: Indicted Engineer Pleads 'Not Guilty' to Selling Secrets to China, Israel, and Others." Christian Science Monitor, 13 Nov. 2006. [http://www.csmonitor.com]
Noshir Gowadia, indicted in November 2005 for selling secrets about the B2 stealth bomber to China, "has been charged with additional counts of spying in an indictment returned by a grand jury last week." ABC News has reported that Gowadia "was also accused of trying to sell more US classified military information to individuals in Israel, Germany, and Switzerland." Gowadia was "one of the lead engineers" on the B2 bomber project.
Gertz, Bill. "Engineer Indicted on Spying." Washington Times, 12 Dec. 2007. [http://www.washingtontimes.com]
According to a federal indictment, former U.S. defense contractor Noshir S. Gowadia "spent more than two years working with China's military to design and test a radar-evading component for a new Chinese cruise missile as part of an espionage conspiracy." The indictment states that Gowadia "worked closely with a Chinese government agent and missile technicians to illegally supply the stealth-missile technology during six visits to China between 2003 and 2005."
Daranciang, Nelson. "Accused Spy in Pretrial Hearings." Star-Bulletin (Honolulu), 10 Jan. 2009. [http://www.starbulletin.com]
On 9 January 2009, a federal court in Honolulu heard pretrial motions in the criminal trial of Noshir Gowadia on charges "of selling secrets about the B-2 bomber to China, trying to sell military secrets to other countries, money laundering and making false statements. His trial is scheduled for April."
McAvoy, Audrey. "Opening Statements Begin in Hawaii Spy Trial." Associated Press, 13 Apr. 2010. [http://www.ap.org]
On 13 April 2010, assistant U.S. Attorney Ken Sorenson told a jury that Noshir Gowadia betrayed the United States "by selling military secrets to China." Gowadia's "defense countered that the information he passed on was 'obvious' and 'well-known.'" Gowadia worked at Northrop Corp. 1968-1986, and "helped design the propulsion system for the B-2 stealth bomber." Gowadia's "trial is expected to last into July."
CNN. "Engineer Gets 32 Years in Jail for Selling Defense Designs to China." 25 Jan 2011. [http://www.cnn.com]
Convicted by a federal jury in August 2010, Noshir Gowadia was sentenced on 24 January 2011 to "32 years in prison for selling secret defense designs to China."
James W. Hall, III, was an Army warrant officer and intelligence analyst in Germany who sold eavesdropping and code secrets to East Germany and the Soviet Union from 1983 to 1988; he is serving 40-year sentence for those activities. Scott Shane, "Some at NSA Betrayed Country," from Scott Shane and Tom Bowman, "No Such Agency," Baltimore Sun, reprint of six-part series, 3-15 December 1995, 6.
Kirschner, Don S. Cold War Exile: The Unclosed Case of Maurice Halperin. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1995.
Clark comment: Accused by Elizabeth Bentley of passing OSS secrets to the Soviets during World War II, Maurice Halperin fled to Mexico, Moscow, Cuba, and eventually Vancouver. Was he a spy for the Soviet Union or a scapegoat during the peak of the McCarthy era?
Surveillant 4.4/5 calls this book "a sympathetic historical analysis of a dyed-in-the-wool leftist." Peake, "OSS and the Venona Decrypts," I&NS 12.3 (Jul. 1997), 25-26, links Halperin to two cypytonyms in the Venona traffic -- "Hare" and, later, "Stowaway" -- but acknowledges that "there is no way to positively identify him as 'Hare' working solely from the messages released." See Haynes, Klehr, and Vassiliev, Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America (2009), pp. 312-314, for a clear connection of Halperin to the cypytonym "Hare."
Victor N. Hamilton was an "Arabic linguist at NSA who defected to Moscow in 1963." He "has resided in [a] Russian hospital for 30 years, diagnosed with schizophrenia." Scott Shane, "Some at NSA Betrayed Country," from Scott Shane and Tom Bowman, "No Such Agency," Baltimore Sun, reprint of six-part series, 3-15 December 1995, 6.
Unsinger, IJI&C 17.1, finds that the authors "use Kitty Harris's life to explain a great deal about the USSR's International Department and its personnel." The Soviet files used by the authors "describe Harris not as a case officer, but simply a cutout for [Earl] Browder [from 1923 to 1929], doing his courier work." During World Warr II, "she began doing work in support of Soviet espionage efforts in the atomic energy sphere, in her usual capacity as courier and cutout." The book "is somewhat of a disappointment," in that it has "just a few quotes from papers in the KGB's Harris files."
Joseph G. Helmich, Jr., was a "former Army warrant officer who sold details of U.S. code machines to the Soviet Union from 1963 to 1966; arrested and sentenced to life in prison in 1981." Scott Shane, "Some at NSA Betrayed Country," from Scott Shane and Tom Bowman, "No Such Agency," Baltimore Sun, reprint of six-part series, 3-15 December 1995, 6.
Deavours, Cipher A. "Helmich and the KL-7." Cryptologia 6, no. 3 (1982): 283-284.
Pressley, Sue Anne. "Five Cuban Agents Guilty of Spying on U.S." Washington Post, 9 Jun. 2001, A12. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]
On 8 June 2001, a federal jury in Miami "convicted five Cuban agents of espionage against the United States.... The leader of the group, Gerardo Hernandez, was found guilty of contributing to the death of four fliers from the Brothers to the Rescue exile group who were shot down in 1996 in international airspace by Cuban MiGs. Prosecutors alleged that Hernandez steered fellow spies away from the targeted flights and delivered a message to Havana that led to the shootdown."
Barron, John. "The Sergeant Who Opened the Door." Reader's Digest 104 (Jan. 1974): 187-194 ff.
Petersen: "Robert Lee Johnson sold NATO secrets to Russia."
Campbell, Kenneth J. "Robert L. Johnson: The Army Johnnie Walker." American Intelligence Journal 11, no. 2 (1990): 5-10. [Petersen]
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