Squillacote, Strand, and Clark

The conviction of Squillacote, Strand, and Clark on espionage charges was aided by the existence in CIA hands of "the complete original files from East Germany's foreign spy operations." Walter Pincus, "Cold War Footnote: CIA Obtained East Germany's Foreign Spy Files," Washington Post, 22 Nov. 1998, A2. Click for reporting on the Stasi files.

Materials presented chronologically.

Weiner, Tim. "3 Onetime Campus Radicals Held in Spy Case." New York Times, 7 Oct. 1997, A1, A16 (N).

"Three onetime student radicals at the University of Wisconsin were charged [on 6 Oct. 1997] with spying for communist intelligence services since the 1970s." See also, Brooke A. Masters and Peter Finn, "Three Former Leftists Held in Va. on Espionage Charges," Washington Post, 7 Oct. 1997, A1, A14; and Brooke A. Masters, "Friends Knew Alleged Spies as Neighborhood Activists," Washington Post, 8 Oct. 1997, B1, B7.

Gertz, Bill. "Ideology Spurred Spy Suspects to Carry on After Cold War." Washington Times, 8 Oct. 1997, A3.

Pincus, Walter. "FBI Finds Leads in Files of Former East German Spy Service." Washington Post, 11 Oct. 1997, A22.

Weiner, Tim. "Spies Just Wouldn't Come in from Cold War, Files Show." New York Times, 15 Oct. 1997, A1, A11 (N).

This report reinforces the portrait of the three campus-radicals-turned-spies as ideologically motivated. Stand was recruited in his teens by his father, an East German intelligence officer who emigrated to New York, and he in turn recruited his wife, Squillacote. The leads to the three came from East German intelligence that made their way into American hands after the Cold War ended.

New York Times. "Bail Ruled Out for 3 Accused Spies." 23 Oct. 1997, A14.

Counterintelligence News and Developments. "Red Diaper Babies." Dec. 1997. [http://www.nacic.gov]

"Theresa Marie Squillacote, 39, was a senior staff attorney in the office of the Deputy Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition Reform until January 1997.... Prior to her Pentagon assignment, Squillacote worked for the House Armed Services Committee....

"Kurt Alan Stand, 42, was a regional representative of the International Union of Food, Agricultural, Hotel, Restaurant, Catering, Tobacco and Allied Workers Association.... He recruited Squillacote about the time he married her in 1980.

"James Michael Clark, 49, a private investigator from Falls Church, Virginia, once worked for a defense contractor at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal in Boulder, Colorado, and had access to classified information on chemical warfare."

Masters, Brooke A. "Couple, Friend Indicted in Spy Case." Washington Post, 18 Feb. 1998, A4.

Counterintelligence News and Developments. "Wiretaps Upheld in Spy Case." Sep. 1998. [http://www.nacic.gov]

U.S. District Judge Claude Hilton "has refused to suppress evidence collected during a six-day search" of the D.C. home of alleged spies Theresa Maria Squillacote and Kurt Stand. He also "said that extensive wiretaps of their conversations were legally authorized. Defense attorneys had argued that FBI agents ... had violated the terms of the search warrant, which restricted the search to certain hours." The judge "said that FBI agents present after those hours were necessary to secure the house. He also rejected a bid for a 'taint hearing' after defense attorneys argued that agents used wiretaps to gather information that is protected by psychotherapist and marital privileges."

Masters, Brooke A. "Prosecutor in Spy Case Describes A Life of Self-Serving Treachery, Defense Attorney Calls Charges Overblown as Trial Begins." Washington Post, 8 Oct. 1998. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

Theresa Maria Squillacote and Kurt Alan Stand "conspired to spy for East Germany, the Soviet Union, Russia and South Africa over the course of more than 20 years," Assistant U.S. Attorney Randy I. Bellows stated at the opening of the couple's federal court trial on 7 October 1998. Squillacote's attorney, Lawrence S. Robbins, "has said that the FBI illegally enticed his client into breaking the law."

Washington Post. "Ex-Associate Testifies Against Spy Suspects." 16 Oct. 1998, B9. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

A couple "charged with conspiring to spy for East Germany told a friend that they had received training in using miniature cameras and deciphering Morse code sent by radio from Cuba, the friend testified [on 15 October 1998]. But James Michael Clark also testified in U.S. District Court that Theresa Maria Squillacote and Kurt Alan Stand did not tell him that they had photographed specific documents. Clark, 50, has already pleaded guilty in the case."

Masters, Brooke A. "Spy Denies Working With Couple: Witness Says He Passed Documents Without Defendants' Help." Washington Post, 17 Oct. 1998, B8. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

"Admitted spy James Michael Clark testified [on 16 October 1998] that he had passed two dozen classified documents to East Germany on his own but that he never conspired with a District couple on trial for espionage.... Clark told the 15-member jury panel that [Kurt Alan] Stand introduced him to an East German, who in turn put him in touch with Lothar Ziemer, who became his longtime spymaster. He said Stand and [Theresa Maria] Squillacote had told him that they had received much of the same training in spycraft and met many of the same East Germans."

Hopper, Dale. "Lawyer, Husband Convicted of Spying." Philadelphia Inquirer, 24 Oct. 1998. [http://www.phillynews.com]

Theresa Squillacote and Kurt Stand were convicted on 23 October 1998 of spying for the Soviet bloc. They could get life in prison.

Masters, Brooke A. "Husband and Wife Sentenced for Espionage." Washington Post, 23 Jan. 1999, A6. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

On 22 January 1999, Theresa Maria Squillacote and Kurt Alan Stand were sentenced "to 21 and 17 years in prison, respectively, for spying for East Germany." A report in Counterintelligence News and Developments, "Red Diaper Babies Sentenced," Mar. 1999, notes that these sentences were "the minimum required under federal sentencing guidelines."

Robbins, Lawrence S. "[Letters:] Heed the Evidence." Washington Post, 12 Feb. 1999, A34. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

"As lead counsel for Theresa Squillacote,... I write to correct the serious misimpression created by ... The Post's account of the sentencing.... In fact, the government never even charged Terry with 'obtain[ing] secrets for East Germany,' nor was there the slightest evidence that she ever did so. Rather, the evidence showed that, through an elaborate sting operation, the government managed to induce Terry to provide four classified documents to an undercover FBI agent (posing, not as an East German, but as a South African)."

Associated Press. "Convicted Spies Lose Court Appeal." 16 Apr. 2001. [http://www.nytimes.com]

On 16 April 2001, the U.S. Supreme Court, without comment, turned away the appeal of the "convicted husband-and-wife team of Marxist spies," Theresa M. Squillacote and Kurt A. Stand.

Aftergood, Steven. "Supreme Court Rebuffs FISA Challenge." Secrecy News (from the FAS Project on Government Secrecy), 23 Apr. 2001. [http://www.fas.org]

With regard to the U.S. Supreme Court's dismissal of the Squillacote-Stand appeal, Aftergood notes that "the FBI requested and received 20 separate FISA authorizations for surveillance" during the Squillacote-Stand investigation. Their attorneys "were never permitted to see the underlying documentation that the government used to justify the surveillance." The government said that "all required procedures were followed at all times,... that access to the FISA applications by the defendants' attorneys was correctly denied on national security grounds[,] ... that the investigation and prosecution of Squillacote and Stand survived multiple layers of judicial review and that their conviction was upheld on appeal."


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