World War II

Richard Sorge

S - Z

Schellenberg, Walter. The Labyrinth: The Memoirs of Walter Schellenberg, Hitler's Chief of Counterintelligence. New York: Harper, 1956. The Schellenberg Memoirs: A Record of Nazi Secret Service.Trans., Louis Hagen. London: André Deutsch, 1956. New York: Pyramid, 1958. [Abridged pb.] New York: Da Capo, 2000. [pb]

According to Pforzheimer, "Schellenberg headed the foreign intelligence department of the Sicherheitsdienst of the Nazi party's Security Administration," and in 1944 assumed control of the Abwehr as well. "In the light of later facts, this book should be read with caution." Mader, Military Intelligence 30.2 (Apr.-Jun. 2004), notes that Schellenberg concludes that the failures of Nazi intelligence in Word War II were "not due to a lack of ability but rather to a lack of historical integration of intelligence into the command structure."

Constantinides suggests that it would be wise to heed the warnings about this book included in Alan Bullock's introduction. Bullock cautioned that "it would be wise not to accept Schellenberg as a trustworthy witness of events unless there is corroboration." There are inaccuracies, significant omissions, and gaps. See also, Doerries, Hitler's Intelligence Chief (2009); and Doerries, ed., Hitler’s Last Chief of Foreign Intelligence: Allied Interrogations of Walter Schellenberg (2003).

U.S. Congress.

1. House. Committee on Un-American Activities. Hearings on American Aspects of the Richard Sorge Spy Case. 82d Cong., 1st sess., 1951. Washington, DC: GPO, 1951.

2. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Security Laws. Testimony of Charles A. Willoughby, Major General, Chief of Intelligence, Far East Command and United Nations Command. 82d Cong., 1st sess., 1951, pp. 353-401. Washington, DC: GPO, 1951.

In this testimony, General Willoughby repeated the charges he had made previously that Agnes Smedley had been a member of the Richard Sorge espionage organization.

U.S. Far East Command. Military Intelligence Section. A Partial Documentation of the Sorge Espionage Case. Tokyo: 1950. [http:// sorge.htm]

Werner, Ruth. Sonjas Rapport. Berlin: Verlag Neues Leben, 1977. Sonya's Report: The Fascinating Autobiography of One of Russia's Most Remarkable Secret Agents. London: Chatto & Windrus, 1991.

Surveillant 2.1 identifies Sonya's Report as the autobiography of a "Soviet agent and associate/lover of Richard Sorge." It is the "professional memoir of a Communist intelligence agent.... Her greatest coup: the passing of British A-bomb secrets from Klaus Fuchs to Stalin."

Ruth Werner (born Ursula Ruth Kuczynski in Berlin in 1907) died in Berlin on 7 July 2000 at the age of 93. Her obituary, "Ruth Werner," Times (London), 10 Jul. 2000, 27, termed her "[o]ne of the most effective agents for the Soviet Union in the early, tension-filled years of the Cold War." Werner's skills as a Soviet agent are illustrated by the continuation of her work dispatching Klaus Fuchs' take to Moscow for two years after her cover had been blown to British security. After fleeing the United Kingdom in 1949, she became "a key member" of the bureaucracy of the East German Communist Party, "in which she served for several decades."

See David Binder, "Ruth Werner, Colorful and Daring Soviet Spy, Dies at 93," New York Times, 23 Jul. 2000, 27; "Cold War Spy Ruth Werner," Washington Post, 9 Jul. 2000, C6; "Ruth Werner, Soviet Spy, Died on July 7th, Aged 93," The Economist, 13 Jul. 2000, 26; and Michael Hartland, "Sonia, The Spy Who Haunted Britain," Sunday Times, 15 Jul. 2000, 1, 3.

For more on Werner's life in the world of Communist espionage, read Benjamin B. Fischer, "Farewell to Sonia, the Spy Who Haunted Britain," International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 15, no. 1 (Spring 2002): 61-76. Fischer notes that, strictly speaking, Werner "was not ... a spy. As a GRU ... agent and illegal who served as liaison between the Moscow Center and the real spies, she was rather a spy-handler." As SONIA of the Venona transcripts, she handled both Klaus Fuchs and Melita Norwood, work that "put[s] her in the superstar category" in espionage history.

Whymant, Robert. Stalin's Spy: Richard Sorge and the Tokyo Espionage Ring. London: Tauris, 1996. New York: St. Martin's, 1998.

Andrew, Spectator, 7 Dec. 1996, finds this a "very readable biography." Although Whymant's work "does not change the broad picture of Sorge's career as it has emerged from previous studies, it adds much interesting detail." For Frank, IJI&C 13.1, the author has a "breezy, readable style," but the "book suffers from shoddy scholarship.... The reference notes ... do not provide dates for the several interviews which Mr. Whymant conducted. Innumerable references to 'Russian Archives' offer no further clarification or description."

To Nish, I&NS 12.3, Whymant's "narrative flows along smoothly," and provides "a thorough, comprehensive, indeed gripping, account of Sorge's activities.... But we still do not know how much weight they carried at destination or the use to which they were put." Bath, NIPQ 20.1, notes that this work "adds the dimension of information drawn from Soviet Defense Ministry and KGB files released in the post-Cold War era. It also delves in greater depth into Sorge's psychological make-up and his relationship with others."

Willoughby, Charles A. Shanghai Conspiracy: The Sorge Spy Ring. New York: Dutton, 1952. Sorge: Soviet Master Spy. London: William Kimber, 1952.

Clark comment: This book is based on a report compiled by Willoughby's staff (he was MacArthur's intelligence chief, 1941-1951) in Japan. Constantinides says that Deakin and Storry, The Case of Richard Sorge, is "far superior." Bath, NIPQ 20.1, notes that this work relies "in the main on captured Japanese police records of the investigation, interrogation -- apparently without torture or undue pressure -- and confessions of the conspirators."

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