World War I

Bisher, Jamie. "Conjecture on the de Cramm Affairs." Intelligencer 16, no. 1 (Spring 2008): 55-57

This is a neat little piece of historical investigation, described by the author thusly: "Evidence suggests that Matilda de Cramm, intimate friend and French tutor of U.S. Ambassador to Russia David R. Francis during the Bolshevik Revolution, was a German or Austro-Hungarian agent, as was her estranged husband, Dr. Ludwig de Cramm."

Bradley, J.F.N. "The Russian Secret Service in the First World War." Soviet Studies 20, no. 2 (Oct. 1968).

Return to Russia Table of Contents

Return to Interwar Table of Contents