Soviet Active Measures:

Deception, Disinformation, and Propaganda

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Haggman, Bertil. "Soviet Russian Active Measures in Scandinavia." Ukrainian Review 34, no. 3 (1986): 69-75. [Calder]

Hajek, Lester. "Target: CIA." Studies in Intelligence 6, no. 1 (Winter 1962): 29-55.

The author discusses the long life of the so-called Hohenlohe papers as anti-CIA psychological warfare. He specifically refers to three works -- Robert Edwards and Kenneth Dunne, A Study of a Master Spy, Allen Dulles (London: Housemans, 1961); Robert E. Light and Carl B. Marzani, Cuba vs. the CIA (London: Marzani and Munsell, 1961); and Fred J. Cook, "The CIA," Nation, 24 Jun. 1961 -- as "deliberate components of the Soviet psywar campaign" rooted in the falsifications of the Hohenlohe papers.

Hazan, Baruch A.

1. Olympic Sports and Propaganda Games: Moscow 1980. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1982.

2. Soviet Impregnational Propaganda. Ann Arbor, MI: Ardis, 1982.

3. Soviet Propaganda: A Case Study of the Middle East Conflict. New York: Wiley, 1976.

Heuer, Richards J., Jr. "Strategic Deception and Counterdeception: A Cognitive Process Approach." International Studies Quarterly 25, no. 2 (Jun. 1981).

Holland, Max.

1. "The Power of Disinformation: The Lie that Linked CIA to the Kennedy Assassination." Studies in Intelligence 11 (Fall-Winter 2001): 5-17.

In a sad-but-true story, the author details how a "successful deception" by the Rome daily Paese Sera "turns out to be a major reason why many Americans believe, to this day, that the CIA was involved in the assassination of President Kennedy." The linkage between Jim Garrison's investigation and the paper's piece of disinformation is summed up this way: "The epicenter of Garrison's prosecution, and the wellspring for his ultimate theory of the assassination, was the DA's belief in a fantasy published by a Communist-owned Italian newspaper."

2. "The Propagation and Power of Communist Security Services Dezinformatsiya." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 19, no. 1 (Spring 2006): 1-31.

The author surveys the KGB's use of disinformation against the United States. He sees the allegation that U.S. forces used CBW weapons in the Korean war as "one of the most effective disinformation efforts ... in the Cold War's first decade.... One of the most singular and persistent efforts at disinformation revolved around the spate of assassinations [particular that of President Kennedy] that occurred inside the United States in the 1960s."

Kaznacheev, Aleksandr I. Inside a Soviet Embassy: Experiences of a Russian Diplomat in Burma. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1962. London: Robert Hale, 1963.

Kirkpatrick, Lyman B., Jr., and Howland H. Sargeant. Soviet Political Warfare Techniques: Espionage and Propaganda in the 1970s. New York: National Strategy Information Center, 1972.

Koch, Stephen. Double Lives: Spies and Writers in the Secret Soviet War of Ideas Against the West. New York: Free Press, 1993. Double Lives: Stalin, Willi Münzenberg and the Seduction of the Intellectuals. London: HarperCollins, 1994. Rev. ed. New York: Enigma Books, 2004.

Kruglak, Theodore E. The Two Faces of TASS. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1962.

Lendvai, Paul. The Bureaucracy of Truth: How Communist Governments Manage the News. London: Burnett, 1981. [Cummings]

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