January - June


Materials arranged chronologically.

Boyes, Roger. "KGB Files to Reveal Fate of Lost Germans." Times (London), 4 Feb. 1999. []

"The fate of tens of thousands of Germans who disappeared inside the Soviet Union" after World War II may be solved by the handover this week to the German Red Cross of KGB files containing the "names, addresses, death dates and the site of their graves" of more than 10,000 Germans.

Gordon, Michael R. "Moscow Court Backs Treason Charge for Atom-Waste Exposer." New York Times, 5 Feb. 1999. []

Alexander Nikitin "was arrested three years ago after helping to document environmental pollution by Russia's northern fleet" and charged with treason. On 4 February 1999, Russia's Supreme Court refused to drop those charges.

Hoffman, David. "Russia's Blind Eye in the Sky." Washington Post National Weekly Edition, 15 Feb. 1999. 15.

"Russia's early-warning defense against missile attack ... is deteriorating because Moscow cannot replenish the array of satellites it needs to monitor U.S. missile silos and submarines."

Warren, Marcus. "Yeltsin Relies on KGB Men to Keep the Kremlin in Control." Telegraph (London), 16 Feb. 1999. []

"[K]ey posts in the Kremlin and the government, the arms industry and the media -- even that of head of Russia's fisheries committee -- have recently gone to career security officers, and the trend seems set to continue.... Yeltsin's weakness for former KGB officers is seen as especially curious. Historically, [few] ex-KGB men ... were given any political responsibility.... Now, in the closing phase of his presidency, having fallen out with most of his trusted advisers, he appears to feel secure surrounded by products of the notorious Soviet intelligence service."

Tracy, Jen. "FSB Sets Sights on Internet Control." St. Petersburg Times, 16 Feb. 1999. []

"Free-range monitoring of the Internet by Russia's Federal Security Service, or FSB, may soon be as easy as clicking a mouse -- a situation that has local service providers [ISPs] forecasting both the demise of their businesses and the complete loss of private electronic correspondence for St. Petersburg's 50,000 Internet users."

Leppard, David, Chris Hastings, and Mark Franchetti.

1. "Agent X and the City Spy Ring." Times (London), 21 Feb. 1999. []

"[A] former high-ranking intelligence officer [Agent X] with 20 years' experience has revealed how Russian spies were planted in British financial institutions in London and abroad."

2. "MI6 Alarm as Another Renegade Spy Spills Secrets." Times (London), 21 Feb. 1999. []

Another MI6 agent "has disclosed sensitive secrets. The agent's revelations -- identifying spies and describing MI6 front companies and covert operations -- will further alarm the spymasters.... They are still reeling from the damage inflicted by David Shayler and Richard Tomlinson ... and the 'naming and shaming' of the MI6 chief in Prague." The disclosures come from "a former senior intelligence officer with more than 20 years' experience in British and European operations.... Last week he named Colonel Andrey Arsenyev as the Russian agent who set up Moscow's economic spying war on Britain. Arsenyev was based at the Russian embassy."

Waller, J. Michael. "Russian Spies Are Alive, Well." Insight, 15. no, 9 (8 Mar. 1999). []

"Even ... after the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, Moscow continued ... to penetrate Western societies with highly trained, long-term espionage officers and agents.... These spies are known as 'illegals' or 'sleepers' -- highly trained intelligence officers posted abroad to live illegally, that is, without the legal cover of an embassy or other government entity that would give them diplomatic immunity in case of arrest."

Gertz, Bill. "Russian Spies Active in Balkans: CIA." Washington Times National Weekly Edition, 29 Mar.-4 Apr. 1999, 1, 22.

According to a report by the CIA's Counterintelligence Center, "Russia is recruiting spies, collecting technology, 'sabotaging' international peacekeeping in the Balkans and using world organizations as cover."

RFE/RL. "Russia: Yeltsin Reshuffles Personnel at FSB." 6 Apr. 1999. []

According to Interfax, Russian President Boris Yeltsin has "shifted and trimmed personnel at the FSB, dismissing Colonel General Valentin Sobolev as first deputy director ... and appointing him deputy secretary of the Security Council on 2 April.... Lieutenant General Yevgenii Solovyov was appointed deputy director and head of the personnel department. In addition, an unidentified source in the FSB told the agency that dozens of personnel have been dismissed including Mikhail Dedyukhin, the head of counterintelligence protection of strategic installations, Aleksandr Izmadenov, his first deputy, and Aleksei Pushkarenko, the head of counterintelligence operations."

Tracy, Jen. "Internet Provider Plans to Sue FSB." St. Petersburg Times, 18 May 1999. []

Nailj Murzahanov is the "general director of Bayard-Slavia Communications, the only Internet Service Provider in Russia that has consistently refused to comply with SORM-2, the FSB's program of mandatory Internet surveillance....

"In April [1999], FSB agents handed Murzahanov a detailed 'realization plan' of cooperation -- involving complete surrender of client privacy and thousands of dollars out of his company's pocket to foot the bill for the necessary technology -- and threatened to close his business if he refused to comply. "They took the first step [on 17 May 1999], disconnecting Bayard-Slavia's satellite channel, effectively shutting Murzahanov's operation down.

"But Murzahanov is ready to retaliate with a threat of his own: Bayard-Slavia will be the first Russian ISP to bring a civil suit against the FSB for what Murzahanov and his lawyers believe is an illegally forceful attempt to monitor and control his clients' Internet activity."

Gertz, Bill. "Second Russian Spy Ship Listens in on NATO, U.S." Washington Times, 19 May 1999. "Russia Deploys Second Spy Ship to Balkan Zone." Washington Times National Weekly Edition, 24-30 May 1999, 1, 22.

"Russia is stepping up electronic spying operations against U.S. and NATO forces in the Balkans with the addition of a second intelligence-gathering ship in the region, Pentagon officials said" on 18 May 1999.

Gertz, Bill. "Russian Spy Gets to Leave Quietly." Washington Times National Weekly Edition, 24-30 May 1999, 14.

"A Russian intelligence officer working undercover at the United Nations was caught spying on the United States and was allowed to leave the country quietly.... It was the second time in six months that FBI agents caught an SVR [the Russian foreign intelligence service] officer spying in the United States, a sign that Moscow is intensifying intelligence activities here."

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