Through the 1970s

Included here:

1. Pre-1970s Intelligence Reform

2. Intelligence Reform in the 1970s

1. Pre-1970s Intelligence Reform

Chamberlain, John. "OSS Demonstrated Need for Coordinated Intelligence Office." Life, 19 Nov. 1945, 118-130. [Petersen]

U.S. Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch of the Government [second Hoover Commission]. Intelligence Activities: A Report to the Congress. Washington, DC: GPO, 1955.

According to Pforzheimer, Studies 5.2 (Spring 1961), this report "[c]onsiders problems of intelligence at the national and departmental levels, including those of personnel and security administration and functional organization."

2. Intelligence Reform in the 1970s

Click for materials focused on the investigations of the CIA and American intelligence generally during the 1970s.

Borosage, Robert. "What to Do with the Intelligence Agencies." Working Papers for a New Society 4 (Winter 1977): 38-45.

Colby, William E., Walter F. Mondale, Peter Szanton, and Graham Allison. "Reorganizing the CIA: Who and How." Foreign Policy 23 (Summer 1976): 53-63.

Elliff, John T. The Reform of FBI Intelligence Operations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1979.

Hardy, Timothy S. "Intelligence Reform in the Mid-1970s." Studies in Intelligence 20, no. 2 (Summer 1976): 1-15.

An insider to the investigations of the mid-1970s attempts to reconstruct the "train of events." The author identifies Seymour Hersh's December 1974 articles on CIA domestic surveillance in the New York Times as the primary cause for intelligence becoming a major issue in 1975.

Hopkins, Bruce R. "The Ninety-Fourth Congress: Congressional Reform Processes." American Bar Association Journal 63 (Fall 1977): 211-215.

Johnson, William R.

1. "Clandestinity and Current Intelligence." Studies in Intelligence 20, no. 3 (Fall 1976): 15-69. In Inside CIA's Private World: Declassified Articles from the Agency's Internal Journal, 1955-1992, ed. H. Bradford Westerfield, 118-184. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1995.

Clark comment: The argument that "the production of current intelligence and the conduct of espionage are incompatible" cannot be better made. Whether you agree or disagree with Johnson's thesis, it is necessary to either remake or refute the points he makes. In essence, Johnson looks at "the effect of anti-clandestine or semi-clandestine or non-clandestine collection for production in volume on the ability of the Clandestine Service to conduct espionage for strategic coverage" and finds that effect to be totally negative. This article should be mandatory reading for anyone seriously interested in "reforming" American intelligence.

2. "The Elephants and the Gorillas." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 1, no. 1 (Spring 1986): 42-56.

Clark comment: This is a succinct rendition of the conclusions reached in Johnson's classic article in Studies in Intelligence, "Clandestinity and Current Intelligence." He argues that "production of current intelligence and the conduct of espionage ... are not compatible and should not be conducted by the same organization."

Warner, Michael. "Reading the Riot Act: The Schlesinger Report, 1971." Intelligence and National Security 24, no. 3 (Jun. 2009): 387-417.

The report completed in March 1971 by a group working under the leadership of OMB Assistant Director James Schlesinger "marked a watershed for the American Intelligence Community (IC), helping the Nixon Administration to conceive and enact reforms that were both consequential in themselves and presaged the findings of later surveys and investigations (and thus more thorough changes in later years)."

Text of the Schlesinger Report ("OMB/NSC Report") and associated materials are available as "A Review of the Intelligence Community," 10 March 1971, Document 229, in Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1969-1976, Vol II, Organization and Management of US Foreign Policy, 1969-1972 (Washington, DC: GPO, 2006), pp. 494-513, and at:

See comments on article by Sir David Omand, "How Many Schlesingers Would It Take to Change a Light-Bulb?" Intelligence and National Security 24, no. 3 (Jun. 2009): 418-421; and Glenn Hastedt, "The Schlesinger Report: Its Place in Past, Present and Future Studies of Improving Intelligence Analysis," Intelligence and National Security 24, no. 3 (Jun. 2009): 422-428.

Wicker, Tom. "The Truth Is Needed" New York Times, 24 Dec. 1974, 19.

Return to Reform Table of Contents