Teaching about Intelligence

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The Association of Former Intelligence Officers (AFIO) has an Academic Exchange Program (AEP) that can be very useful in building and maintaining a course or courses on intelligence and related areas. For a list of participants and their institutions, see Access to course syllabi is available through As a matter of truth in presentation, it should be noted that this writer has been a participant in the AEP program.

Anastaplo, George. "Clausewitz and Intelligence: Some Preliminary Observations." Teaching Political Science 16, no. 2 (Winter 1989): 77-84.

Andrew, Christopher, Richard J. Aldrich, and Wesley K. Wark. Secret Intelligence: A Reader. New York and London: Routledge, 2009.

Clark comment: The subtitle says exactly what this work is -- a Reader targeted at classroom use. There are 30 articles drawn from the writings of a number of scholars in the field of intelligence studies. Peake, Studies 53.3 (Sep. 2009) and Intelligencer 17.2 (Fall 2009), notes that whether you view this book "as a text or a source for stimulating thought on modern intelligence issues," it "is an important compendium and should be consulted by all concerned with the profession."

Bacastow, Todd S., and Dennis Bellaflore. "Redefining Geospatial Intelligence." American Intelligence Journal 27, no. 1 (Fall 2009): 38-40.

Two professors from Penn State University offer up a new definition to underpin the development of a Geospatial Intelligence program.

Breckinridge, James G. "Designing Effective Teaching and Learning Environments for a New Generation of Analysts." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 23, no. 2 (Summer 2010): 307-323.

"The IC looks to academic institutions to assist with the preliminary preparations of aspiring analysts. If these institutions are to be effective, evaluation standards and measures of effectiveness, as established by the IC, should be fully integrated into the academic curricula."

Campbell, Stephen H. "A Survey of the U.S. Market for Intelligence Education." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 24, no. 2 (Summer 2011): 307-337.

The focus here is on "the education of prospective or practicing intelligence professionals and users of intelligence within the U.S. government."

Clark, Mark T., and Brian Janiskee. "Developing STORM, a Methodology for Evaluating Transit Routes of Transnational Terrorists and Criminals." Studies in Intelligence 53, no. 4 (Dec. 2009): 35-42.

The authors discuss conducting an NSA Institute for Analysis (IFA) "challenge project" by a Califonia State University consortium.

Clauser, Jerome K., and Elton S. Carter. The Design of an Intelligence Education: Assessment of Intelligence Educational and Training Requirements. State College, PA: H.R.B. Singer, 1965. [Petersen]

Cline, Marjorie W., ed. Teaching Intelligence in the Mid-1980s: A Survey of College and University Courses on the Subject of Intelligence. Washington, DC: National Intelligence Study Center, 1985.

Updated by Fontaine, Teaching Intelligence in the Mid-1990s.

Consortium for the Study of Intelligence. Resource Reports on Intelligence for Teaching Faculty. Washington, DC: National Strategy Information Center, 1988. Rev. ed. Washington, DC: National Strategy Information Center, 1992.

Surveillant 3.1 calls the revised edition a "valuable guide for instructors teaching courses on intelligence or for use in personal research."

Corpora, Christopher A. "The Stone and Quarry: Intelligence Studies in a Dynamic Global Environment." American Intelligence Journal 25, no. 2 (Winter 2007-2008): 12-23.

The author suggests "ways for intelligence studies to become a fuller research program that reflects on the profession and its observers." He argues for "a broader, multidisciplinary approach that aims to test fundamental assumptions."

Cummins, Alex. "Ten Years of Graduate Intelligence Education with a SIGINT Twist." Defense Intelligence Journal 9, no. 2 (Summer 2000): 75-80.

The Joint Military Intelligence College (JMIC) and the NSA Graduate Center offer eligible NSA employees a Master of Science in Strategic Intelligence (MSSI) degree.

Davies, Philip H. J. "Assessment BASE: Simulating National Intelligence Assessment in a Graduate Course." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 19, no. 4 (Winter 2006-2007): 721-736.

Discusses the "highly demanding, semester-long simulation of the British model of national intelligence assessment, designated the Brunel Analytical Simulation Exercise (BASE)." The simulation is taught at Brunel University in its Master's degree in Intelligence and Security Studies (MA/ISS), "as part of a wider program of initiatives tied to the establishment of the Brunel University Centre for Intelligence and Security Studies (BCISS)."

Denécé, Eric, and Gérald Arboit. "Intelligence Studies in France." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 23, no. 4 (Winter 2010-2011): 725-747.

"In less than two decades, French Intelligence Studies has undergone a major transformation.... [D]espite the traditional lack of interest of political leaders in the subject, Intelligence has achieved a level of recognition that it hitherto lacked.... But talk of the emergence of a 'French School' of Intelligence ... is premature. The renewed interest in Intelligence as a subject of research may yet be only a passing fad."

Díaz Matey, Gustavo. "The Development of Intelligence Studies in Spain." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 23, no. 4 (Winter 2010-2011): 748-765.

"Since the 1980s, and especially since the end of the Cold War, the academic discipline of Intelligence Studies has undergone a progressive revolution in Spain." Nevertheless, "Intelligence Studies remains only an incipient discipline in Spain."

Dorando, Peter J. "For College Courses in Intelligence." Studies in Intelligence 4, no. 3 (Summer 1960): A15-A19.

Some years (decades) would pass before this author's wish for serious academic treatment of intelligence, beginning with a basic course of study, would be realized. Nevertheless, the reasons for doing so that the author offers here remain valid.

Dover, Robert, Michael S. Goodman, and Claudia Hillebrand, eds. Routledge Companion to Intelligence Studies. London: Routledge, 2014.

Peake, Studies 59.1 (Mar. 2015), finds that 35 authors from eight different countries are represented in this work. It "gives a good idea of the progress of intelligence studies over the past 30 years, the important questions that have yet to be answered, and the areas that will dominate the field for the foreseeable future."

Earnest, Peter, with Suzanne Harper. The Real Spy's Guide to Becoming a Spy. New York: Abrams, 2009.

Peake, Studies 53.4 (Dec. 2009) and Intelligencer 17.2 (Winter-Spring 2010), notes that this "is a serious book aimed at those who may at some point in their formative years consider becoming an intelligence officer." It "answers questions often asked but seldom answered in one place. Students, teachers and parents will find it useful."

Fontaine, Judith M. Teaching Intelligence in the Mid-1990s: A Survey of College and University Courses on the Subject of Intelligence. Washington, DC: National Intelligence Study Center, 1992.

This book lists college and university courses taught in the United States (by state) and Canada, which specifically mention intelligence and have a substantial intelligence-related context. Eight selected syllabi are also presented, together with their required texts and additional reading lists. This is an indispensable "I-am-not-alone" publication for individuals teaching in the subject area. Clark comment: The above was written in the mid-1990s. Obviously, the field of intelligence studies has grown and even matured in the last 20 years, so the alone feeling comment is no longer as meaningful.

Frerichs, Rebecca L., and Stephen R. Di Rienzo. "Establishing a Framework for Intelligence Education and Training." Joint Force Quarterly 62 (3d Quarter, Jul. 2011). []

"To create an environment that institutionalizes success, the IC must first come to terms with the value of intelligence education. Doing so requires a firm understanding of what intelligence education is and what it can do, as opposed to overemphasizing training, which is better understood but does not address the full spectrum of the threat confronting the United States today."

Fry, Michael G., and Miles Hochstein. "Epistemic Communities: Intelligence Studies and International Relations." Intelligence and National Security 8, no. 3 (Jul. 1993): 14-28.

"[I]ntelligence studies have been and remain a very modest part of the intellectual agenda of the international relations community."

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