M - Q


Magnuson, Stew. "Struggling Spy Satellite Agency Tries to Right Itself." National Defense, Jan. 2010. []

NRO Director, retired Air Force Gen. Bruce Carlson, said at the Geo-Int conference that the agency "has work to do to regain the confidence of Congress.... Carlson said he had intimate knowledge of the failed process [of the development of the future imagery architecture], having served on the joint chiefs of staff as the director for force structure, resources and assessment in the early part of the decade when the program was being developed."

Mayo, Reid D. "Conceiving the World's First Signals Intelligence Satellite." In Beyond Expectations -- Building an American National Reconnaissance Capability: Recollections of the Pioneers and Founders of National Reconnaissance, ed. Robert A. McDonald, 129-138. Bethesda, MD: American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 2002.

McDonald, Robert A.

1. "Corona, Argon, and Lanyard: A Revolution for US Overhead Reconnaissance." In Corona -- Between the Earth and the Sun: The First NRO Reconnaissance Eye in Space, ed. Robert A. McDonald, 61-74. Bethesda, MD: American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 1997.

2. "Corona: A Success for Space Reconnaissance, a Look into the Cold War, and a Revolution for Intelligence." Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 61, no. 6 (Jun. 1995): 689-720.

Merle, Renae. "Boeing Satellite Project Criticized: Funding, Delays Concern Panel." Washington Post, 6 Sep. 2003, E1. []

A report by the Pentagon's Defense Science Board says that Boeing's Future Imagery Architecture (FIA) "project to develop the next generation of spy satellites has been significantly underfunded and has suffered from technical shortcomings." The program "can be 'mitigated sufficiently' to permit" it to continue, "but was 'not executable' as it existed before recent changes." Spokesman Art Haubold said that the NRO "has already addressed many of the concerns raised by the report.... About $4 billion was added to the program in January to initiate changes, including new deadlines and more testing of technology....

"Another program spotlighted by the report, Lockheed Martin's Space Based Infrared-High satellite program [SBIRS], which will act as an early warning system for incoming missiles, 'could be considered a case study for how not to execute a space program,' the report said. The program lacks experienced personnel and has counted on unproven approaches because they promised cost savings, the report said."

See Defense Science Board/Air Force Scientific Advisory Board Joint Task Force, Acquisition of National Security Space Programs (Washington, DC: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, May 2003).

Mintz, John. "Lockheed Martin Works to Save Its Older Spies in the Skies." Washington Post, 29 Nov. 1995, D1.

Morrocco, John D. "CIA Slashing Satellite Network." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 16 Jan. 1995, 64.

Office of the Director of National Intelligence, Public Affairs Office. "DNI Blair Announces Plan for the Next Generation of Electro-Optical Satellites." ODNI News Release No. 12-09. Washington, DC: 7 Apr. 2009. []

DNI Dennis C. Blair announced on 7 April 2009 that "the Office of the DNI along with the Department of Defense (DoD) have put together a plan to modernize the nation's aging satellite-imagery architecture by prudently evolving government-owned satellite designs and enhancing use of U.S. commercial providers."

Key features of the plan include: "Government-owned satellites would be developed, built and operated by the National Reconnaissance Office"; DoD and the Intelligence Community "would increase the use of imagery available through U.S. commercial providers"; and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency "would continue to provide the infrastructure that integrates capabilities as well as imagery products."

"Once Congress approves funding for the plan, implementation will begin in the next several months. The commercial imagery elements of the architecture would likely be operational in the next several years. The overall architecture would be fully deployed before the end of the next decade."

O'Neill, Helen. "Decades Later, a Cold War Secret Is Revealed." Associated Press, 25 Dec. 2011. []

Former workers at Perkin-Elmer's Danbury, Connecticut, facility can now talk about their work on the Hexagon KH-9 photographic reconnaissance satellite. "Though other companies were part of the project -- Eastman Kodak made the film and Lockheed Corp. built the satellite -- the cameras and optics systems were all made at Perkin-Elmer."

Pasztor, Andy. "Spy Agencies Outdo Air Force In Getting Satellite Funding." Wall Street Journal, 7 Dec. 2007. []

"U.S. intelligence agencies are quietly spending about $7.5 billion to build a pair of older-technology spy satellites, people familiar with the matter said, at a time when more-technically-advanced military satellite projects are faltering because of budget cuts.... The Air Force has had difficulty moving advanced projects, and the new spending highlights how control of such projects is moving away from the Air Force and toward intelligence officials."

Pearson-Mackie, Nancy. "The Need to Know: The Proliferation of Space-Based Surveillance." Arms Control 12, no. 1 (May 1991): 94-122.

Pike, Christopher Anson. "CANYON, RHYOLITE, and AQUACADE: U.S. Signals Intelligence Satellites in the 1970s." Spaceflight 37, no. 11 (Nov. 1995): 381-383.

Pincus, Walter.

1 "Panel Set Up by CIA Recommends Building Smaller, Cheaper Spy Satellites." Washington Post, 30 Jun. 1996, A11.

2. "Smaller Spy Satellites May Give U.S. Stealth Capability Over Trouble Spots." Washington Post, 1 Feb. 1998, A9.

Some new generation satellites, beginning in 2003, "may be equipped with stealth technology so they cannot be tracked by radar, several sources said. But other sources doubt a way has been found to prevent detection of the satellites."

3. "Spy Satellites Are Under Scrutiny: Negroponte to Advise Congress on Funding New Systems." Washington Post, 16 Aug. 2005, A11. []

According to congressional and administration sources, DNI John D. Negroponte "is reviewing two multibillion-dollar spy satellite programs,... and will make recommendations on their future to House and Senate intelligence committees" in September 2005. Sources said that one of the systems under scrutiny "is a classified program to build the next generation of stealth satellites." The other program receiving attention "is the new generation of non-stealth space vehicles -- using optical, radar, listening and infrared-red capabilities -- known collectively as the Future Imagery Architecture (FIA)."

Priest, Dana. "New Spy Satellite Debated on Hill: Some Question Price and Need." Washington Post, 11 Dec. 2004, A1. []

According to U.S. officials, "[t]he United States is building a new generation of spy satellites designed to orbit undetected." In closed congressional sessions "lawmakers have questioned its necessity and rapidly escalating price.... The previously undisclosed effort has almost doubled in projected cost -- from $5 billion to nearly $9.5 billion, officials said." Officials said the NRO "has already spent hundreds of millions of dollars on the program.... The satellite in question would be the third and final version in a series of spacecraft funded under a classified program once known as Misty."

Prados, John. "High-Flying Spies." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Sep. 1992, 11-12.

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