Bro - Dh


Broad, William J.

1. "Science Seeking Military's Data From Cold War." New York Times, 23 Jun. 1992, A1, B11.

On 28 May 1992, President Bush "signed a directive that cleared the way for environmentalists to use the nation's spy gear and records." Intelligence collection "platforms" which might provide information in monitoring the global environment include satellites, aircraft, ships, and submarines.

2. "Spy Satellites' Early Role Coming Clear." New York Times, 12 Sep. 1995, B5, B10.

Replays some of the recent Corona revelations, with large photographs to illustrate.

3. "U.S. Will Deploy Its Spy Satellites on Nature Mission." New York Times, 27 Nov. 1995, A1, A14 (N).

A new program "is directing spy satellites to study about two dozen ecologically sensitive sites around the world. Ultimately, it is to monitor about 500 sites.... The data will be archived for future generations of scientists and will remain secret for now to conceal the abilities of the nation's reconnaissance systems." Scientists involved in the project note that "spy satellites are better than civilian remote-sensing craft, like Landsat or Spot, which orbit the earth for the United States and France respectively.... For the fiscal year 1996, the Administration requested $17.6 million for the environmental work, and appropriations conferees allotted $15 million."

Brown, Stuart F. "America's First Eyes in Space." Popular Science, Feb. 1996, 42-47.

Brugioni, Dino. "Aerial Photography: Reading the Past, Revealing the Future." Smithsonian 14, no. 12 (Dec. 1984): 150-161.

Bulloch, Chris. "View from the Top -- Intelligence Gathering from Aircraft and Spacecraft." Interavia 39 (Jan. 1984): 543-548. [Petersen]

Campbell, Duncan. "Hiding from the Spies in the Sky." The Guardian, 4 Jun. 1998. []

Over five years ago, retired CIA analyst Allen Thomson "wrote a detailed study showing how the US strategy of depending on a few, expensive satellites for reconnaissance was flawed.... Thomson warned that 'the presumption that reconnaissance satellites can operate covertly is obsolete'.... 'Tracking US reconnaissance satellites can provide valuable support to a hostile country's concealment and deception programmes,' says Thomson, echoing his words of five years ago." The Indian nuclear tests have "spectacularly vindicated" his warning.

Cassata, Donna. "Spy Budget Cleared for Clinton; Plan for New Agency Curbed." Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 23 Dec. 1995, 3894-3895.

On 21 December 1995, the House and the Senate passed the fiscal 1996 intelligence authorization bill. "The bill reportedly authorizes about $28 billion." In a compromise on the smallsat issue, DCI Deutch will be allowed to "appoint a special panel that will recommend how to proceed in acquiring small satellites."

Chien, Philip. "High Spies." Popular Mechanics, Feb. 1996, 47-51.

Chow, Denise. "CIA Declassifies Spy Satellite Saga with a Deep-Sea Twist." MSNBC, 10 Aug. 2012. []

On 8 August 2012, the CIA released documents that detail how in 1972 the U.S. Navy used its "most sophisticated deep-sea submersible,"the Trieste II Deep Sea Vehicle, or DSV-1, to retrieve a film capsule from a Hexagon photo reconnaissance satellite "that had settled more than 16,000 feet ... underwater on the ocean floor. At the time, the expedition was the deepest undersea salvage operation ever attempted."

Clark, Evert. "Satellite Spying Cited by [President] Johnson." New York Times, 17 Mar. 1967, 13.

This is an early report acknowledging the use by the United States of monitoring satellites.

Corddry, Charles. "Piggy-Back Satellites Hailed As Big Space Gain for U.S." Washington Post, 23 Jun. 1960. [Bamford2]

Covault, Craig.

1. "Advanced KH-11 Broadens U.S. Recon Capability." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 6 Jan. 1997, 24-25.

2. "Atlantis Radar Satellite Payload Opens New Reconnaissance Era." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 12 Dec. 1988, 26-28.

3. "Cooperative Recon Gains Momentum." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 9 Oct. 1995, 28-29.

Officials from the United States, Russia, Europe, and Japan are discussing the possibility of combining the capabilities of classified reconnaissance spacecraft "for broader international utilization in crisis monitoring and peacekeeping operations."

4. "Eavesdropping Satellite Parked Over Crisis Zone." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 18 May 1998, 30.

5. "Military Space Capabilities Expanding, but Excess Secrecy Limits Progress." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 17 Apr. 1989, 18- 19.

6. "Recon Satellites Lead Allied Intelligence Effort." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 4 Feb. 1991, 25-26.

U.S. reconnaissance satellite imaging is "the allied forces' primary source of information for bomb damage assessment and attack mission planning" in the Gulf War. The author also reviews the number and kinds of imaging spacecraft involved in this reconnaissance effort.

7. "Secret NRO Recons Eye Iraqi Threat." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 16 Sep. 2002. []

"[S]ix secret National Reconnaissance Office high-resolution imaging satellites ... are maintaining an almost hourly watch on specific Iraqi facilities. Three Advanced KH-11s with optical and infrared sensors are teamed with three Lacrosse imaging radar spacecraft with night/all-weather capabilities to search for evidence of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons development, along with missile production.

"But some of these spacecraft are growing old, and a critical new KH-11 replacement satellite that was to have been launched from Vandenberg AFB, Calif., in December 2001 has now been delayed nearly 1.5 years by problems. It is now not planned to launch any earlier than May 2003."

8. "Titan Explosion Destroys Secret 'Mercury' Sigint." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 17 Aug. 1998, 28.

9. "USAF, NASA Discuss Shuttle Use for Satellite Maintenance." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 17 Dec. 1984, 14-16.

Cushman, Jack. "Space Shuttle Explosion Throws Military Programs into Disarray." Defense Week, 3 Feb. 1986, 2-4. [Petersen]

Data: Magazine of Military RDT&E Management. Editors.

1. "Reconnaissance and Surveillance." 11, no. 4 (1967): 6-10. [Petersen]

2. "Reconnaissance and Surveillance." 12 (Apr. 1967): 11-63. [Petersen]

Day, Dwayne A.

1. "CORONA: A View Through the KEYHOLE." Intelligence Watch Report Quarterly 2, no. 1 (1995): 17-21.

This article concerns the declassification on 24 Feb. 1995 of CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD satellite programs and release of additional photographs at a 23-24 May 1995 symposium. Includes five photographs, but the quality of reproduction limits their usefulness in this form.

2. "A Failed Phoenix: The KH-6 LANYARD Reconnaissance Satellite." Spaceflight 39, no. 5 (May 1997): 170-174.

3. "Ferrets Above: American Signals Intelligence Satellites during the 1960s." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 17, no. 3 (Fall 2004): 449-467.

"Throughout the 1960s, signals intelligence satellites were designed, developed, and operated by the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Air Force, working within the framework of the National Reconnaissance Office."

4. "Listening from Above: The First Signals Intelligence Satellite." Spaceflight 41, no. 8 (Aug. 1999): 339-346.

5. "A LOOK AT . . . Spy Satellites & Hollywood." Washington Post, 2 Jul. 2000, B3. "It's Only a Movie." Washington Post National Weekly Edition, 10 Jul. 2000, 23.

This is a fun article that I hope many people read and learned what satellites can and cannot do -- most notably, they cannot violate the laws of physics.

6. "Revelations." The Space Review, 6 Aug. 2012. []

The "tremendous amount of information released in the past year" by the NRO "is credit to an impressive declassification program within the intelligence services. The US military and intelligence space programs during the first couple of decades of the space age can now be described in incredible detail and understood far better than before. This will enable historians to better understand their role in the Cold War, their importance to arms control, and their linkages to other aspects of American space technology. These declassifications leave relatively little that is still classified from the first decade of American space intelligence."

Defense Science Board/Air Force Scientific Advisory Board Joint Task Force. Acquisition of National Security Space Programs. Washington, DC: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, May 2003. []

Steven Aftergood, "Military Space Programs in Disarray," Secrecy News, 5 Sep. 2003, notes that the DSB/AFSCB report finds that there are "systemic problems" in the U.S. military and national security space programs. This includes the conclusion that "the next generation spy satellite program, known as the Future Imagery Architecture, is 'technically flawed' ... and 'not executable.'"

Return to Satellites Table of Contents