A - Brn

Abrahams, Doug. "Martin Marietta Wins Billion-Dollar Job." Washington Times, 26 Jul. 1994, B7.

See also, Ralph Vartabedian, "TRW Contract on Spy Satellites Voided by GAO," Los Angeles Times, 2 Jul. 1994, D1, D2.

Aerospace Daily. Editors. "DARPA Eyes Low-Cost Radar Satellite Constellation." 2 Jun. 1997, 341-342.

Aftergood, Steven. "Intelligence Satellite Imagery Declassified for Release." Secrecy News, 22 Apr. 2013. []

"An enormous volume of photographic imagery from the KH-9 HEXAGON intelligence satellites [with19 successful missions between 1971 and 1984] was quietly declassified in January [2013] and will be transferred to the National Archives later this year for subsequent public release."

Aftergood, Steven. "More Intelligence Imagery to Be Declassified." Secrecy News (from the FAS Project on Government Secrecy), 16 Aug. 2002. []

NIMA "has announced the impending declassification of ... satellite imagery from the KH-7 and KH-9 satellites.... 'The high-resolution KH-7 surveillance imaging satellite, flown from July 1963 to June 1967, monitored key targets such as IBM complexes, radar systems, and hot spots around the globe,'" according to a NIMA fact sheet. "The lower-resolution KH-9 ... system was devoted exclusively to gathering information for mapmaking, and collected imagery from March 1973 to October 1980."

Aftergood, Steven. "ODNI Secrecy Activity, 'Population' Increased in 2010." Secrecy News, 20 Jan. 2011. []

In a 12 November 2010 report to the Information Security Oversight Office, ODNI Information Management Director John F. Hackett reported that "[t]he number of ODNI 'derivative classification decisions'... increased 7.6% to 1,762,999 from the year before....  'The increase in total decisions was largely driven by population growth, which increased by 17% from last year.'" The report also states that "There were two discretionary declassification decisions made by the Acting DNI during FY10 (declassification of 'QUILL' as a Radar Imager and declassification of the fact of GAMBIT/HEXAGON overhead ISR missions)."

Amato, Ivan. "God's Eyes for Sale." Technology Review, Mar-Apr. 1999, 36-41.

The focus is on John Hoffman and his company, Aerial Images.

Anselmo, Joseph C.

1. "House, Senate at Odds Over Intel Smallsats." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 13 Nov. 1995, 24-25.

2. "U.S., Allied Collaboration Urged for Intel Satellites." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 4 Mar. 1996, 25.

3. And Philip J. Klass. "NRO Embraces Sigint Smallsats." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 29 Sep. 1997, 35.

Associated Press. "New US Military Satellite Launched into Space, Will Keep Watch Over Missiles, Battlefields." 7 May 2011. []

An Atlas 5 rocket launched 7 May 2011 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station "carried the Space-Based Infrared System geosynchronous satellite."

Aviation Week & Space Technology. Editors.

1. "KH-11 Recons Modified." 9 Oct. 1995, 28.

2. "Spacecraft Played Vital Role in Gulf War Victory." 22 Apr. 1991, 91.

3. "Space Reconnaissance Dwindles." 6 Oct. 1980, 18-20. [Petersen]

Bamford, James. "America's Supersecret Eyes in Space." New York Times Magazine, 13 Jan. 1985, 39 ff. [Petersen]

Barker, Edward L. [CAPT/USNR (Ret.)] "POPPY Reconnaissance Satellite Program." Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly 22, no. 2 (Apr. 2006): 23.

POPPY was the successor to GRAB, the first U.S. ELINT satellite. POPPY first flew in 1962 and the last of seven launches was in 1971. The satellite was developed by Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), and after formation of the NRO, was a component of Program C.

Beecher, William. "Spy Satellites Will Monitor Pacts." Sea Power 15 (Jul.-Aug. 1972): 20-24. [Petersen ]

Behling, Thomas, and Kenneth McGruther. "Planning Satellite Reconnaissance to Support Military Operations." Studies in Intelligence, Winter 1998-1999, 113-121.

Given the "design and development lead-times" required for satellites, "by the time the military determines intelligence requirements to support its new doctrine [Joint Vision 2010], it may be too late to influence decisions about the very intelligence support systems upon which the doctrine depends."

Bender, Bryan. "Space Mission Aims To Fill Critical DoD Mapping Shortfalls." Jane's Defence Weekly, 8 Sep. 1999.

The upcoming Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor "aims to create a topographical database which the Department of Defense (DoD) believes is critical for carrying out US military operations successfully." The mission is a joint DoD-NASA effort. "It will develop a 'mosaic' of 80% of the Earth's land surface -- between 60 north and 56 south latitude -- at a resolution of 30m."

Bennett, Ralph K. "U.S. Eyes Over Russia: How Much Can We See?" Reader's Digest, Oct. 1985, 142-147. [Petersen]

Best, Richard A., Jr., and Jennifer K. Elsea. Satellite Surveillance: Domestic Issues. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 13 Jan. 2011. Available at:

"This report provides background on the development of intelligence satellites and identifies the roles various agencies play in their management and use. Issues surrounding the current policy and proposed changes are discussed.... There follows a discussion of legal considerations, including whether satellite reconnaissance might constitute a 'search' within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment; an overview of statutory authorities, as well as restrictions that might apply; and a brief description of executive branch authorities and Department of Defense directives that might apply. The report concludes by discussing policy issues Congress may consider as it deliberates the potential advantages and pitfalls that may be encountered in expanding the role of satellite intelligence for homeland security purposes."

Block, Robert. "U.S. to Expand Domestic Use of Spy Satellites." Wall Street Journal, 15 Aug. 2007, A1. []

A May 2007 decision by DNI Michael McConnell "greatly expanded the range of federal and local authorities who can get access to information" from U.S. spy satellites. A memo to Secretary Michael Chertoff asked DHS "to facilitate access to the spy network on behalf of civilian agencies and law enforcement." DHS chief intelligence officer Charles Allen "will be in charge of the new program."

Bone, James. "Spy Satellite Resolves to Put Us All in the Picture." Times (London), 18 Sep. 1999. []

If all goes well with the launch of Space Imaging's Ikonos II commercial imaging satellite "anyone with a laptop will [soon] be able to download from the Internet one-metre resolution satellite pictures of any co-ordinate on Earth." Philip Howard, "Nowhere Left to Hide," Times (London), 18 Sep. 1999, discusses the privacy and civil rights implications of the Ikonos II capabilities.

Brender, Mark. "Remote-Sensing Satellites: Our Eyes in the Sky." Communicator, Oct. 1992, 56-57.

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