Constitutional & Legal Issues

International Law


Ansary, Abdullah. "The Punishment of Espionage under Islamic Law." World Law Bulletin 11 (Nov. 2005): 59-64.

Bowman, M. E.

1. "Intelligence and International Law." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 8, no. 3 (Fall 1995): 321-335.

"Whatever else may be said of the intelligence function in international affairs, the fact that it exists, is tolerated, and has limits of behavior is demonstrable. These attributes create definable customary international norms. Occasionally, to explain the perceived pattern may be difficult, and it may be impossible consistently to demarcate the limits of tolerance, but that does not belie the existence of norms, however ephemeral and transitory they may appear."

2. "Intelligence, Law Enforcement and International Law." American Intelligence Journal 28, no. 1 (2010): 59-66.

"There is no rational reason why the decisions of Westphalia, now more than four centuries past, must be thought to control issues for which they were not intended.... [T]he world community needs to revisit the concept of sovereignty and consider the need to accommodate threat remediation efforts that will inhere to the benefit of all."

Center for Democracy. The Proper Role of an Intelligence Agency in a Democracy: An International Conference Co-Sponsored by the Office of the President of Bulgaria, the Center for Democracy, the E.L. Wiegand Foundation, [and] the Furth Foundation, Sofia, Bulgaria, 8-10 April 1992. Washington, DC: The Center for Democracy, 1992.

Clark, Michael T. "Economic Espionage: The Role of the United States Intelligence Community." Journal of International Legal Studies 3, no. 2 (Summer 1997): 253-292.

Colby, Jonathan E. "The Developing International Law on Gathering and Sharing Security Intelligence." Yale Studies in World Public Order 1 (1974): 49-92. [Petersen]

Damrosh, Lori F. "Covert Operation." American Journal of International Law 83 (Oct. 1989): 795-805. [Petersen]

Demarest, Geoffrey B. [LTC/USA]

1. "Espionage in International Law." American Intelligence Journal 14, no. 1 (Autumn/Winter 1993): 75-80.

2. "Espionage in International Law." Denver Journal of International Law and Policy 24, no. 2/3 (Spring 1996): 321-348.

Edmundson, Leslie S. "Espionage in Transnational Law." Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 5 (Spring 1972): 434-458. [Petersen]

Eustis, Frederic A., III. "The Glomar Explorer Incident: Implications for the Law of Salvage." Virginia Journal of International Law 16 (Fall 1975): 177-185. [Petersen]

Falk, Richard A.

1. "American Intervention in Cuba and the Rule of Law." Ohio State Law Journal 22 (Summer 1961): 546-585.

Petersen: "Critical of U.S. policy."

2. "CIA Covert Action and International Law." Society 12, no. 3 (Mar.-Apr. 1975): 39-44.

3. "President Gerald Ford, CIA Covert Operations, and the Status of International Law." American Journal of International Law 69, no. 2 (Apr. 1975): 354-358.

Glees, Anthony. "War Crimes: The Security and Intelligence Dimension." Intelligence and National Security 7, no. 3 (Jul. 1992): 242-267.

Halleck, H. W. "Military Espionage." American Journal of International Law 5 (Jul. 1911): 590-603.

Jackamo, Thomas J., III. "From the Cold War to the New Multilateral World Order: The Evolution of Covert Operations and the Customary International Law of Non-Intervention." Virginia Journal of International Law 32, no. 4 (Summer 1992): 929-977.

Calder: "Addresses uncertainty in status of traditional law of non-intervention and potential problems raised by any uniform rule on intervention that might be enacted by the United Nations."

Kellogg, Davida E. "International Law and Terrorism." Military Review 85 (Sep.-Oct. 2005): 50-57.

Miskovsky, M. C. "Impunity of Agents in International Law." Studies in Intelligence 5, no. 2 (Spring 1961): A21-A34.

There is "some authority in international law for the proposition that if a man is a duly commissioned agent of his government, albeit without diplomatic immunity, any illegal acts he performs within the scope of his duties may still be considered not his personal violations but his government's national acts, raising questions public and political between independent nations."

Payne, Richard J. "Flags of Convenience and Oil Pollution: A Threat to National Security?" Houston Journal of International Law 3, no. 1 (1980): 67-99.

Stanger, Roland J. Essays on Espionage and International Law. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1962.

Chambers: Scholarly essays.

Zarate, Juan C. "The Emergence of a New Dog of War: Private International Security Companies, International Law, and the New World Disorder." Stanford Journal of International Law 34 (Winter 1998): 75-185. [Calder]

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