Constitutional & Legal Issues

Freedom of Information Act

See: Central Intelligence Agency Information Act. Pub. L. 98-477, Oct 15, 1984; 98 Stat. 2209; 5 U.S.C. (section) 552a, 50 U.S.C. (sections) 431, 432.

Adler, Mark S. "National Security Information Under the Amended Freedom of Information Act: Historical Perspectives and Analysis." Hofstra Law Review 4, no. 3 (Spring 1976): 759-804. [Calder]

Aitchison, Danae J. "Reining in the Glomar Response: Reducing CIA Abuse of the Freedom of Information Act." U.C. Davis Law Review 27 (Fall 1993): 219-254.

Clark comment: The "Glomar Response" is "We can neither confirm nor deny."

American Bar Association. Standing Committee on Law and National Security. "Congress Considers Amendments to Freedom of Information Act." Intelligence Report 3, no. 8 (1981): 1-4.

Petersen: "CIA Exemptions."

American Bar Association. Standing Committee on Law and National Security. "First Circuit Applies CIA Information Act." National Security Law Report 15, no. 9 (Sep. 1993): 1, 4.

Sullivan v. Central Intelligence Agency, 992 F.2d 1249 (1st Cir. 1993). "The statute also played a minor role in an earlier case, Hunt v. Central Intelligence Agency, 981 F.2d 1116 (9th Cir. 1992)" [fn. 1]. The classified information being sought "remains protected."

American Bar Association. Standing Committee on Law and National Security. "Testimony on FOIA Presented by AFIO and ACLU Representatives." Intelligence Report 3, no. 9 (1981): 1-4. [Petersen]

Bell, June B. “Invisible-ink Formula Stays Invisible.” National Law Journal 24, no. 26 (4 Mar. 2002).

"U.S. District Judge Thomas Penfield Jackson rejected" an FOIA request from the James Madison Project "for 16 pages of documents on how to create and detect invisible ink." The documents being sought "were produced between 1917 and 1930. Attorneys representing the CIA … argued that though secret ink may seem an unsophisticated espionage technique compared to 21st-century encryption, it could nonetheless be valuable to America's foes." [James Madison Project v. National Archives & Records Administration, No. 98-2737 (D.D.C.).]

Center for National Security Studies. The CIA and the Freedom of Information Act: A Report on the Proposals for an Exemption. CNSS Report 106. Washington, DC: 1980. [Petersen]

Cole, Patrick E. "The Freedom of Information Act and the Central Intelligence Agency's Paper Chase: A Need for Congressional Action to Maintain Essential Secrecy for Intelligence Files while Preserving the Public's Right to Know." Notre Dame Law Review 58 (Dec. 1982): 350-381.

D'Amato, Alfonse M., and Antonia M. Greenman. "The Freedom of Information Act and the CIA: How S. 1235 Will Enhance Our Nation's Security." Journal of Legislation 9 (Summer 1982): 179-193.

Glennon, Michael J. "Congressional Access to Classified Information." Berkeley Journal of International Law 16 (1998): 126-137.

Hunt v. CIA, No. 92-16548, United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit, 30 Dec. 1992.

Click for the summary of opinion in this FOIA case.

Minnesota Law Review. "FOIA Exemption 3 and the CIA: An Approach to End the Confusion and Controversy." 68 (Jun. 1984): 1231-1263.

Toran, Janice. "Secrecy Orders and Government Litigants: 'A Northwset Passage Around the Freedom of Information Act.'" Georgia Law Review 27 (Fall 1992): 121-182. [Calder]

University of Cincinnati Law Review. "Administrative Law -- Freedom of Information Act -- an agency's unpublished time of request cutoff date for searching its files for records requested under the Freedom of Information Act is invalid as unreasonable unless exceptional circumstances are shown; all records in an agency's possession, whether created by the agency itself or by another agency, are 'agency records' -- McGehee v. Central Intelligence Agency, 697 F.2d 1095." 52 (1983): 921-935.

Washburn Law Journal. "Freedom of Information Act: CIA's Right to Nondisclosure Broadened by Liberal Definition of Intelligence Source (CIA v. Sims, 105 S. Ct. 1881)." 25 (Spring 1986): 586-597.

Western New England Law Review. "Administrative Law -- Defining the CIA's 'Intelligence Sources' as an Exception to the Freedom of Information Act -- CIA v. Sims, 105 S. Ct. 1881." 9 (1987): 333-360.

Winchester, Karen A., and James W. Zirkle. "Freedom of Information and the CIA Information Act." University of Richmond Law Review 21 (Winter 1987): 231-302.

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