Ethical Considerations

H - Z

Hanne, William G. "Ethics in Intelligence." Military Intelligence 8, no. 1 (1982): 6-8. [Petersen]

Herman, Michael.

1. "Ethics and Intelligence after September 2001." Intelligence and National Security 19, no. 2 (Summer 2004): 342-358.

"Intelligence has to fit into the ethics of an increasingly co-operative system of states, perhaps with bigger changes in thinking than have previously seemed possible."

2. "Intelligence Services and Ethics in the New Millenium." Irish Studies in International Affairs 10 (1999): 260-261.

3. "Modern Intelligence Services: Have They a Place in Ethical Foreign Policies." In Agents for Change: Intelligence Services in the 21st Century, ed. Harold Shukman, 287-311. London: St. Ermin's, 2000.

Hook, Sidney. "Intelligence, Morality, and Foreign Policy." Freedom at Issue 25 (Mar.-Apr. 1976): 3-7. [Petersen]

Hulnick, Arthur S., and David W. Mattausch. "Ethics and Morality in United States Secret Intelligence." Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy 12, no. 2 (Spring 1989): 509-522.

International Journal of Intelligence Ethics 1, no. 1 (Spring 2010) and 2, no. 2 (Fall 2011).

Edited by Jan Goldman. Table(s) of Contents.

Johnson, William R. "Ethics and Clandestine Collection." Studies in Intelligence 27, no. 1 (Spring 1983): 1-8.

Jones, R.V. Reflections on Intelligence. London: Heinemann, 1989. London: Mandarin, 1990. [pb]

Surveillant 1.1 comments that Jones "comes up with a doctrine for the guidance of intelligence officers called 'minimum trespass,' which parallels the military doctrine of 'minimum force.'" For Jervis, IJI&C 4.4, "[e]ven when R.V. Jones is not at his best, he is still good." However, this book "could have benefitted from more careful editing to eliminate repetition." Petersen notes that Jones "addresses ethical concerns raised by intelligence operations," while Foot, I&NS 5.3, calls the essays "splendidly incisive."

See also, R.V. Jones, "Some Lessons in Intelligence: Enduring Principles," Studies in Intelligence 38, no. 5 (1995): 37-42. This is a speech Jones made at CIA Headquarters, 26 October 1993.

Langan, John, S.J. "Moral Damage and the Justification of Intelligence Collection from Human Sources." Studies in Intelligence 25, no. 2 (Summer 1981): 57-64.

Lasswell, Harold D. "The Relation of Ideological Intelligence to Public Policy." Ethics 53, no. 1 (Oct. 1942): 25-34.

Lefever, Ernest W., and Roy Godson. The CIA and the American Ethic: An Unfinished Debate. Washington, DC: Ethics and Public Policy Center, Georgetown University, 1979.

Olson, James M. Fair Play: The Moral Dilemmas of Spying. Washington, DC: Potomac, 2006.

Robarge, Studies 51.1 (Mar. 2007), notes that the author investigates the issue of ethics in intelligence "in a novel and thought-provoking way. He has created 50 fictional scenarios" and asked a 66-person "focus group" (whether some or all for any one scenario is not clear) whether "they consider the specified course of action morally acceptable or morally unacceptable." Many of the pro and con arguments are "insightful and at times provocative." Olson argues that intelligence "needs clear rules of engagement that emerge from open and informed discussion of what constitutes tolerable behavior."

For Peake, Intelligencer 15.2 (Fall-Winter 2006-2007), the author "has given the literature of intelligence one of its most interesting, unusual and forthright books.... It should be mandatory reading for all." Nolte, AIJ 25.1 (Summer2007), finds that the heart of the book, "both from its academic value and its place as provocative and entertaining reading," is the 50 scenarios. They are "well chosen, realistic, and difficult."

Prout, DIJ 16.1 (2007), comments that while the author once headed CIA counterintelligence, "his expertise extends to other aspects of intelligence as well. Here he examines virtually all aspects of human intelligence (HUMINT) operations." The reviewer is bothered that Olson dismisses U.S. intelligence collection prior to the formation of OSS. Nevertheless, Fair Play "is a must have for anyone who seeks to understand the world of espionage." To Salvetti, CIRA Newsletter 32.2 (Summer 2007), "[r]eaders of this book will better understand what it means to be a CIA intelligence officer in the 21st century."

Omand, David [Sir].

1. "Ethical Guidelines in Using Secret Intelligence for Public Scrutiny." Cambridge Review of International Affairs 19, no. 4 (2006): 613-628.

2. "The Dilemmas of Using Secret Intelligence for Public Scrutiny." In The New Protective State: Government, Intelligence and Terrorism, ed. Peter Hennessy, 142-169. London: Continuum, 2007.

Pangle, Thomas. "The Moral Basis of National Security: Four Historical Perspectives." In Historical Dimensions of National Security Problems, ed. Klaus E. Knorr. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1976.

Pekel, Kent. "Integrity, Ethics, and the CIA: The Need for Improvement." Studies in Intelligence (Spring 1998): 85-94.

The article is based on the author's "participation in an Office of Training and Education working group charged with looking at how ethics education is conducted at the CIA" and "50 one-on-one interviews" in 1996 with "a rough cross-section" of the CIA population. At the time, Pekel was serving at the CIA as a White House Fellow.

Perry, David L. Partly Cloudy: Ethics in War, Espionage, Covert Action, and Interrogation. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2009.

For Jens, International Journal of Intelligence Ethics 1.1 (Spring 2010), the author provides "a persuasively argued approach to determining both individuals' and governments' ethical guidelines under the often extreme pressures of war and intelligence work." Prout, International Journal of Intelligence Ethics 1.1 (Spring 2010), thinks differently, arguing that Perry "fails in his analysis when he tries to consider" the four elements in the book's title "as similar and equal and thus subject to some general theory of ethics that might apply universally."

Pfaff, Tony, and Jeffrey R. Tiel. "The Ethics of Espionage." Journal of Military Ethics 3, no. 1 (2004): 1-15.

Politi, Alessandro. "The Citizen as 'Intelligence Minuteman.'" International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 16, no. 1 (Spring 2003): 34-38.

"Urging a democracy's citizens to exercise caution, and encouraging them to report suspicious behavior can be a valuable self-defense mechanism when used to protect the public, rather than keep it under surveillance for political purposes and social control.... The fact that intelligence is, at least in the overwhelming majority of democracies, under the rule of law shows that politics, ethics, and intelligence may be an odd, but not an improbable trio."

See Leslie A. Donovan, "Citizens as Intelligence Volunteers: The Impact of Value Structures," International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 18, no. 2 (Summer 2005): 239-245, discussing the counterintuitive phenomena whereby "in many nations people do not necessarily value national security as generally understood by political leaders and specialists in the field."

Quinlan, Michael [Sir]. "Just Intelligence: Prolegomena to an Ethical Theory." Intelligence and National Security 22, no. 1 (Feb. 2007): 1-13. And in The New Protective State: Government, Intelligence and Terrorism, ed. Peter Hennessy, 123-141. London: Continuum, 2007.

It would "be unrealistic to expect to frame an open and explicit code [of ethics] in specific terms to govern the entire [intelligence] activity. There would, however, be merit -- not least for public confidence and support -- in seeking to develop a wider and more systematic understanding of principles than seems yet to have been generally established and recognized on either side of the Atlantic."

Shane, Scott. "An Exotic Tool for Espionage: Moral Compass." New York Times, 28 Jan. 2006. [http://www.nytimes.com]

"A group of current and former intelligence officers and academic experts ... are meeting this weekend ... to begin hammering out a code of ethics for spies and to form an international association to study the subject.... 'It doesn't make much sense to me,' said Duane R. Clarridge, who retired in 1988 after 33 years as a C.I.A. operations officer.... 'Depending on where you're coming from, the whole business of espionage is unethical.'"

Shelton, Allison M. "Framing the Oxymoron: A New Paradigm for Intelligence Ethics." Intelligence and National Security 26, no. 1 (Feb. 2011): 23-45.

The author proposes that ethical justifications for intelligence operations "should be considered along a progressive spectrum rather than the common two-sided debate."

Spracher, William C. "Mired in Gray: Juggling Legality, Lawfulness, and Ethics as an Intelligence Professional." American Intelligence Journal 25, no. 1 (Summer 2007): 63-70.

"[I]n all too many instances, the trade-off between usefulness and legality was so problematic that appropriate guidance was evident only in hindsight when it was too late to rectify the damage or resulting embarrassment." This is an expanded and updated version of William C. Spracher, "The 'Lawfulness' of Intelligence Operations," Military Intelligence 5, no. 3 (Jul.-Sep. 1979): 11-15.

Treverton, Gregory F. "Covert Action and Open Society." Foreign Affairs 65, no. 5 (Summer 1987): 995-1014.

Valcourt, Richard R. "Controlling U.S. Hired Hands." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 2, no. 2 (1988): 163-178.

Ends don't justify the means if the means include using drug dealers, gangsters, and the like.

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