Ethical Considerations

A - G

Allhof, Fritz. "Terrorism and Torture." International Journal of Applied Philosophy 17 (2003): 105-118. [Goldman]

American Journal of Bioethics 7, no. 5 (May 2007): 3-26. [http://bioethics.net/]

"Target Article," "Neuroethics and National Security," with "Open Peer Commentaries." Click for relevant portion of Table of Contents.

Andregg, Michael.

1. "Intelligence Ethics: Laying the Foundation for the Second Oldest Profession." In Handbook of Intelligence Studies, ed. Loch K. Johnson, 52-63. London: Routledge, 2007.

2. comp. "A Symposium on Intelligence Ethics." Intelligence and National Security 24, no. 3 (Jun. 2009): 366-386.

Summaries of thirteen essays on intelligence ethics.

Bar-Joseph, Uri. "The Professional Ethics of Intelligence Analysis." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 24, no. 1 (Spring 2011): 22-43.

The author argues for "the institutionalization of truth as the ultimate norm in intelligence reports and estimates by making it a central piece of intelligence professional ethics."

Beitz, Charles. "Covert Intervention as a Moral Problem." Ethics and International Affairs 3 (1989): 45-60.

Bellaby, Ross. "What's the Harm? The Ethics of Intelligence Collection." Intelligence and National Security 27, no. 1 (Feb. 2012): 93-117.

This article seeks to establish "an ethical framework" that outlines "under what circumstances the use of different intelligence collection activities would be permissible."

Bloomfield, Lincoln P., Jr. "The Legitimacy of Covert Action: Sorting Out the Moral Responsibilities." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 4, no. 4 (Winter 1990): 525-537.

Bok, Sissela. Lying: Moral Choice in Public and Private Life. New York: Vintage, 1979.

Wilcox: "Includes discussion of espionage and intelligence work."

Bruemmer, Russell J. "The Prohibition on Assassination: A Legal & Ethical Analysis." In In the Name of Intelligence: Essays in Honor of Walter Pforzheimer, eds. Hayden B. Peake and Samuel Halpern, 137-165. Washington, DC: NIBC Press, 1994.

Bruemmer was CIA General Counsel from 1988 to 1990.

Canon, David. "Intelligence and Ethics: The CIA's Covert Operations." Journal of Libertarian Studies 4, no. 2 (Spring 1980): 197-214.[http://www.mises.org/journals/jls/4_2/4_2_6.pdf]

This writer would solve the intelligence-ethics dilemma by "[a]bolish[ing] all covert operations, except those involving counter-intelligence, which must be purely defensive in nature" and relying on "overt intelligence gathering" and "technological means of getting information."

Chapman, Robert D. "Lies, Torture, and Humanity." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 20, no. 1 (Spring 2007): 188-194.

This is a review article on Goldman, ed., Ethics of Spying (2006), but is worth a read on its own for Chapman's take on a number of related issues.

Colby, William E. "Public Policy, Secret Action." Ethics and International Affairs 3 (1989): 61-71.

Cullen, Peter M. "The Role of Targeted Killing in the Campaign against Terror." Joint Force Quarterly 48 (1st Quarter 2008): 22-29.

The author concludes that "a carefully circumscribed policy of targeted killing can be a legal, moral, and effective tool in a counterterror campaign. Procedures to guide the proper implementation of a U.S. policy of targeted killing are proposed."

Defense Intelligence Journal. ["Ethics."] 16, no. 1 (2007): Entire issue.

Click for the individual articles in this issue.

Donovan, Leslie A. "Citizens as Intelligence Volunteers: The Impact of Value Structures." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 18, no. 2 (Summer 2005): 239-245.

This article discusses the counterintuitive phenomena whereby "in many nations people do not necessarily value national security as generally understood by political leaders and specialists in the field."

Ericson, Paul G. "The Need for Ethical Norms." Studies in Intelligence 36, no. 5 (1992): 15-18.

"We take great pride in our Agency's specialness.... This pride is well placed." But it "has its dark side, which has its costs. One of the foremost has been our seemingly sustained reluctance to formalize the ethical minimums which should govern our business and to pass these findings on to those who join the Agency."

Erskine, Toni. "'As Rays of Light to the Human Soul?' Moral Agents and Intelligence Gathering." Intelligence and National Security 19, no. 2 (Summer 2004): 359-381.

The author "sets out a simple typology of 'realist,' 'consequentialist' and 'deontological' ethical approaches to intelligence collection and explores how different practices might be variously evaluated from each."

Gendron, Angela.

1. "The Ethics of Overhead Surveillance: Deploying UAVs in the National Airspace for Law Enforcement and Other Purposes." International Journal of Intelligence Ethics 2, no. 2 (Fall 2011): 19-44.

"Aviation authorities are currently grappling with the challenge of how to integrate unmanned aircraft with manned air operations and civilian air traffic structures. Safety issues are paramount and will take some time yet to resolve, but before UAVs proliferate the national airspace, certain political, legal, and ethical questions must be asked about the appropriateness of this technology for domestic purposes and the implications for civil liberties."

2. "Just War, Just Intelligence: An Ethical Framework for Foreign Intelligence." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 18, no. 3 (Fall 2005): 398-434.

Glees, Anthony. "Redefining the Limits of Secret Activity in the United Kingdom." International Journal of Intelligence Ethics 2, no. 2 (Fall 2011): 2-18.

The author examines "the issues of deriving intelligence from detainees with a view to clarifying how the practice of intelligence collection by British personnel is to be placed in a broader ethical context and to consider the implications of current allegations that British intelligence profits from the use of torture on future intelligence gathering by the British intelligence community more generally."

Godfrey, E. Drexel. "Ethics and Intelligence." Foreign Affairs 56, no. 3 (Apr. 1978): 624-642.

Clark comment: This remains an important basis for discussion of its subject. See response by Arthur L. Jacobs, "Comments & Correspondence," Foreign Affairs 56, no. 4 (Jul. 1978): 867-875.

Goldman, Jan.

1. ed. Ethics of Spying: A Reader for the Intelligence Professional. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2005.

Peake, Studies 50.3 (Sep. 2006), finds that this work "asks whether the intelligence profession can be ethical and effective at the same time. The potential conflicts between truth, cover, and deception are considered in the contributions from 25 authors, many with experience in the profession."

For Brooks, 22.4 NIPQ (Sep. 2006), this work is "an excellent resource" for "making students give serious thought to the underpinnings of ethics." However, the authors' points of views "range from the simplistic ... to naive ... to very sophisticated philosophical examinations." The Chomeau and Rudolph essay "is elegant in its straightforwardness and compelling logic."

Micklewright, DIJ 15.1 (2006), comments that this easily readable book "serves as a central reference for intelligence professionals looking for guidance." Case studies help readers "make the most" of the book's information "by requiring them to apply what they have learned." To Chapman 20.1 (Spring 2007), some of these articles "are profound and provoke thought," but others are "wide of the mark."

2. ed. Ethics of Spying: A Reader for the Intelligence Professional, Volume 2. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2010.

Peake, Studies 54.2 (Jun. 2010) and Intelligencer 18.1 (Fall-Winter 2010), finds that the focus of this volume "is theoretical." Although it "may be useful for students, scholars, those unfamiliar with the topic, and those seeking a theoretical base for ethics in intelligence, it adds nothing new for the practicing professional."

3. "Ethics of Spying." Defense Intelligence Journal 14, no. 2 (2005): 45-52.

Text of speech to Joint Military Intelligence College Alumni Association, U.S. Naval Academy, 3 October 2005.

Greene, Dorian D. "Ethical Dilemmas Confronting Intelligence Agency Counsel." Tulsa Journal of Comparative & International Law 2 (Fall 1994): 91ff.

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