To 1999

Included here:

1. General

2. World War I

3. World War II

4. Postwar to the 1989 Revolution

5. From 1990 to 1999

1. General

Watts, Larry L.

1. With Friends Like These: The Soviet Bloc's Clandestine War Against Romania. Vol. I. Bucharest: Editura Militara/Military Publishing House, 2010.

Van Bebber, Parameters 41.3 (Autumn 2011), finds that the author "demonstrates that Romania never enthusiastically embraced its inclusion in the Soviet bloc and that its relationships with its nominal allies deteriorated from the early 1950s onward. Watts documents the clandestine disinformation campaign (beginning in the 1950s and heightening after the events of 1968) orchestrated by Moscow to discredit and isolate Bucharest.... Although it is poorly edited and somewhat lengthy ... it is nonetheless a worthwhile read for those who wish to understand contemporary Romania."

For Gordon, AIJ 29.2 (2011), this work is neither clearly focused nor well written. "Rather, the author presents an array of information, apparently assuming that the reader will make implicit connections related to the theme of the book." The "last chapter ends so abruptly" in 1978 that "one could surmise that it lays the groundwork for a second study that would cover the last ten years of the Ceausescu regime."

2. Extorting Peace: Romania, The Clash Within the Warsaw Pact and The End of the Cold War. Vol. II. Bucharest: RAO Publishing House, 2013.

Jones, Studies 58.2 (Jun. 2014), reviews these volumes in a single review. He concludes that Watts provides "a fair, balanced, accurate, and compelling revisionist history of Soviet bloc policy based on a meticulous study of the creation and collapse of communist Romania."

2. World War I

Schmidt, Jürgen. "'Political Police' and German Occupational Forces in Romania, Fall 1918." Journal of Intelligence History 1, no. 2 (Winter 2001). [http://www.intelligence-history.org/jih/previous.html]

3. World War II

Mark, Eduard. "The OSS in Romania, 1944-45: An Intelligence Operation of the Early Cold War." Intelligence and National Security 9, no. 2 (Apr. 1994): 320-344.

4. Postwar to the 1989 Revolution

Burke, James F. "Romanian and Soviet Intelligence in the December Revolution." Intelligence and National Security 8, no. 4 (Oct. 1993): 26-58.

Deletant, Dennis.

1. Ceaucescu and the Securitate: Coercion and Dissent in Romania, 1965-1989. London: Hurst, 1995.

Surveillant 4.2: This is a "chilling reconstruction of the notorious secret police state that dominated Romania for over 20 years."

2. "The Securitate and the Police State in Romania: 1948-64." Intelligence and National Security 8, no. 4 (Oct. 1993): 1-25.

This "history of the Securitate in post-war Romania" looks at the "nature of its subservience to its Soviet masters, and ... its relationship to the leadership of the Romanian Communist Party."

3. "The Securitate and the Police State in Romania: 1964-89." Intelligence and National Security 9, no. 1 (Jan. 1994): 22-49.

"Ceaucescu's denunciation of past Securitate abuses and the reforms of 1965-68 created an atmosphere of optimism and an expectation of even broader liberalization.... But such hopes were to be swiftly dashed.... Disillusionment gave way to dissent and the Securitate was quick to act."

See also, Ion Mihai Pacepa, Red Horizons (1987). Pacepa defected in late July 1978.

Dunham, Donald. Zone of Violence. New York: Belmont, 1962.

Nicola, Traian. Good-bye Dracula! The Story of a Transylvanian Defector. Parker, CO: Outskirts Press, 2012.

Commenting on this self-published book, Peake, Studies 57.1 (Mar. 2013), notes that the author "is the only former DIE [Romanian Foreign Intelligence Department] officer to publish an English-language mrmoir with firsthand insights into Cold War counterintelligence history." Nicola defected in 1979.

Pacepa, Ion Mihai. "The Arafat I Know." Wall Street Journal, 10 Jan. 2002.

The former head of the Romanian foreign intelligence service, who defected to the West in 1978, claims to have aided the Soviet KGB in the indoctrination and training of PLO Chairman Yasir Arafat.

Pacepa, Ion Mihai. Red Horizons: Chronicles of a Communist Spy Chief. Washington, DC: Regnery, 1987. London: Heinemann, 1988.

Persak, Krzysztof, and Lukasz Kaminski, eds. A Handbook of the Communist Security Apparatus in East Central Europe, 1944-1989. Warsaw, Poland: Institute of National Remembrance, 2005.

Holland, IJI&C 19.2 (Summer 2006), sees this as an "exceptionally useful volume." Although the "volume's chapters are uneven,... each chapter provides a dependable base line of information."

5. From 1990 to 1999

Mutler, Alison. ["Romania: Defector Acquitted of Treason."] Associated Press, 7 Jun. 1999.

On 7 June 1999, Ion Pacepa, former deputy head of Romanian foreign intelligence, was acquitted of treason by Romania's highest court. After his defection in 1978, Pacepa had been convicted in absentia and sentenced to death.

Perlez, Jane. "Romania Still Divided by Issue of Opening Old Secret Police Files." New York Times, 4 Feb. 1998, A3.

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