A - D

Included here:

1. Arab Countries General

2 Algeria

3. Bahrain

4. Belarus

5. Burma (Myanmar)

6. Croatia

7. Cyprus

1. Arab Countries General

Caroz, Yaakov. The Arab Secret Services. London: Transworld, 1978. [Wilcox]

Handel, Michael I. "Crisis and Surprise in Three Arab Israeli Wars." In Strategic Military Surprise: Incentives and Opportunities, eds. Klaus Knorr and Patrick Morgan, 111-122. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1984.

Includes information on the Israeli deception plan prior to the Sinai Campaign in 1956.

Kahana, Ephraim, and Muhammad Suwaed. Historical Dictionary of Middle Eastern Intelligence. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2009.

Peake, Studies 53.4 (Dec. 2009) and Intelligencer 54.1 (Winter-Spring 2010), notes that the volume's introduction outlines "the use of intelligence from ancient times until the present.... A good index would have been helpful in locating the many players and organizations.... [N]o sources are cited in the entries, and errors have crept in.... There is an extensive bibliography that includes mostly English sources ... though some Israeli and Arabic citations are included. Overall this is a valuable contribution for those concerned with intelligence in the Middle Eastern countries."

O'Ballance, Edgar. Electronic War in the Middle East, 1968-70. North Haven, CT: Shoe String Press, 1974.

Tadmor, Joshua. Silent Warriors: The Dramatic Story of the Men and Women, Israeli and Arab Secret Agents in the Middle East from World War II to the Present. New York: Macmillan, 1969. [Chambers]

2. Algeria

Nomikos, John M., and Aya Burweila. "Another Frontier to Fight: International Terrorism and Islamic Fundamentalism in North Africa." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 22, no. 1 (Spring 2009): 50-88.

"[T]he alliance of North Africa's regional militant groups with international networks represents not only the further globalization of Islamic terror, but also strongly suggests that North Africa, in particular Morocco and Algeria, is to act as another major frontier of Jihad against the United States, Europe, and secular regimes in Muslim populated countries." [Footnote omitted]

3. Bahrain

Allen, Robin. "Bahrain Spy Chief Replaced." Financial Times, 20 Feb. 1998, 8.

4. Belarus

AFP. "Belarus Intelligence Chief Axed After Spy Scandal." Moscow News, 20 Jul. 2007. [http://mnweekly.rian.ru]

On 17 July 2007, Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko replaced "intelligence chief Stepan Sukhorenko but did not say if it was linked to the weekend discovery of a Polish spy ring in the country.... The KGB secret service will now be headed by Yuri Jadobin, who was in charge of Lukashenko's security."

5. Burma (Myanmar)

Aldrich, Richard J. "Legacies of Secret Service: Renegade SOE and the Karen Struggle in Burma, 1948-50." Intelligence and National Security 14, no. 4 (Winter 1999): 130-148.

During World War II, it proved relatively easy for secret services to foment insurgencies. However, in the postwar period, the issue became one of how to handle such forces. The Karens had worked loyally alongside SOE during the war, and in its aftermath some former SOE officers returned in a "private" capacity to aid the hill tribes against the central Rangoon government.

Selth, Andrew. "Burma's Intelligence Apparatus." Intelligence and National Security 13, no. 4 (Winter 1998): 33-70.

The author describes "a complex structure of intelligence and specialized security agencies" in Burma. The article includes diagrams of the intelligence and security establishment in the mid-1950s, 1970s, mid-1980s, mid-1990s, and 1997.

6. Croatia

Lefebvre, Stéphane. "Croatia and the Development of a Democratic Intelligence System (1990–2010)." Democracy and Security 8, no. 2 (2012): 115-163.

The author "concludes that changes in governance, organization, oversight, and accountability, along with pressures to join European institutions, have helped Croatia develop an intelligence system increasingly respectful of democratic norms, human rights, and the rule of law."

7. Cyprus

Dimitrakis, Panagiotis. "The 1978 Battle of Larnaca Airport, Cyprus, and UK Diplomacy." Middle East Review of International Affairs 13, no. 2 (Jun. 2009): 95-104.

In 1978, when Egypt tried to stage an Entebbe-style raid on terrorists at Larnaca airport, the Cypriot National Guard opened fire on the Egyptian forces, "killing 15 commandos and destroying their C-130H transport.... The conclusion of this forgotten crisis may be relevant to today's war on terrorism strategy; no matter how weak a country is considered, no matter how high the terrorist threat might be, states planning a foreign intervention should obtain the agreement of the sovereign government first."

Dimitrakis, Panagiotis. "British Intelligence and the Cyprus Insurgency, 1955-1959." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 21, no. 2 (Summer 2008): 375-394.

"The British services had very good intelligence on the EOKA organization, methods, tactics, and operations.... Tactical intelligence on the whereabouts of the guerrilla leaders was, however, hard to come by.... [T]he guerrillas were able to maintain the military and political initiative."

Dimitrakis, Panagiotis. Military Intelligence in Cyprus: From the Great War to Middle East Crises. London: Tauris, 2010

From publisher: The author "introduces new research" on the "role of British intelligence on the island throughout the twentieth century, particularly during World War II, the 1955-59 Archbishop Makarios and EOKA-led revolt and the 1974 Turkish invasion." Peake, Studies 54.4 (Dec. 2010), finds that this "is a scholarly reference work based mainly on primary sources and is not light reading. But it is a sound history of a topic not covered elsewhere and thus a most welcome and valuable contribution to the literature."

Dimitrakis, Panagiotis. "The Special Operations Executive and Cyprus in the Second World War." Middle Eastern Studies 45, no. 2 (Mar. 2009): 315-328.

"Poor co-ordination between the SOE and the 25th Army Corps was the main aspect of the SOE story in Cyprus. Regular staff officers did not believe in guerrilla warfare and it seems that the SOE officers did not successfully defend their role within the overall strategy on Cyprus. Besides, distrust of the Cypriots was so profound that the British plan was encapsulated in the phrase 'let the Germans first invade and then we will train our guerrillas.'"

Evripidou, Stefanos. "'New Era' for Intelligence Agency." Cyprus Mail, 14 Sep. 2014. [http://cyprus-mail.com/]

On 10 September 2014, the Cyprus cabinet approved making the Cyprus Intelligence Service (KYP) "fully independent and professional body.... Until now, KYP was staffed mainly with police officers, operating like a branch of the Cyprus police, with some military staff also on board.... The new legislation will allow for non-police personnel to be employed in the service and ... will also provide for greater oversight."

Perez, Evan, and Alkman Granitsas. "U.S. Seeks to Keep Spy Suspects in Jail; Cypriot Police Hunt for Man Who Fled." Wall Street Journal, 1 Jul. 2010. [http://online.wsj.com]

"Christopher Metsos, the alleged moneyman in the [Russian] spy ring, was arrested this week" in Cyprus, but "[a] judge granted him bail, with the agreement that he surrender his passport and report regularly to a police station. 'Within 24 hours of being bailed, Metsos simply disappeared,' prosecutors said."

U.S. Department of State. Office of the Historian. Gen. ed., David S. Patterson. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1964-1968. Vol. XVI. Cyprus; Greece; Turkey. Ed., James E. Miller. Washington, DC: GPO, 1999. [http://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1964-68v16]

U.S. Department of State. Office of the Historian. Gen. ed., Edward C. Keefer. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1969-1976. Volume XXIX. Eastern Europe; Eastern Mediterranean, 1969–1972. Eds., James E. Miller, Douglas E. Selvage, and Laurie Van Hook. Washington, DC: GPO, 2007. [http://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1969-76v29]

From "Preface": "The coverage of this volume is split almost equally between Eastern Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean [i.e., Greece, Cyprus, and Turkey].... The second chapter [of the Eastern Europe section] is ... a general one. It deals with U.S. Government policy and the bureaucratic debate about -- and ultimately, the decision on how to fund -- Radio Free Europe ... and Radio Liberty."

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