General Post-World War II

Caserta, John. The Red Brigades: Italy's Agony. New York: Manor, 1978.

Catanzaro, Raimondo, ed. The Red Brigades and Left-Wing Terrorism in Italy. London: Pinter, 1991.

Collin, Richard O., and Gordon L. Freedman. Winter of Fire. New York: Dutton, 1990.

Ellwood, David W.

1. "The Impact of the Marshall Plan on Italy, the Impact of Italy on the Marshall Plan." In Cultural Transmissions and Receptions: American Mass Culture in Europe, eds. R. Kroes, R.W. Rydell, and D.F.J. Boscher, 100-124. Amsterdam, Netherlands: VU UP, 1993.

2. "Italian Modernisation and the Propaganda of the Marshall Plan." In The Art of Persuasion: Political Communication in Italy from 1945 to the 1990s, eds. Luciano Cheles and Luciano Sponza. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2001.

3. "The 1948 Elections in Italy: A Cold War Propaganda Battle." Historical Journal of Film, Radio & Television 1 (1993).

4. "The Propaganda of the Marshall Plan in Italy in a Cold War Context." Intelligence and National Security 18, no. 2 (Summer 2003): 225-236.

"The Marshall Plan delivered the goods, and deployed an ever-wider range of communication methods to inform, educate, and convince its beneficiaries. The [Communist] Party failed to learn the importance of mass audio-visual media from its defeat in the 1948 elections, and had no useful response to the double onslaught of Hollywood and the USIS/ERP programme."

Lazar, Marc. "The Cold War Culture of the French and Italian Communist Parties." Intelligence and National Security 18, no. 2 (Summer 2003): 213-224.

"[T]he Cold War had a considerable impact in France and Italy, being relayed domestically by two powerful communist parties and amplifying already-existing conflicts in each of these societies. In France, as in Italy, the confrontation was violent, and developed into a kind of 'war culture'.... It permitted polemical and political passions to be unleased against ... 'the enemy'.... Yet, despite its intensity and continual stoking, this confrontation was always mastered and controlled by communists and non-communists alike."

Maugeri, Franco. From the Ashes of Disgrace. New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1948.

Miller, James.

1. "Taking Off the Gloves: The United States and the Italian Elections of 1948." Diplomatic History 7, no. 1 (Winter 1983): 35-55.

2. The United States and Italy, 1940-1950: The Politics and Diplomacy of Stabilization. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.

Mistry, Kaeten.

1. "Approaches to Understanding the Inaugural CIA Covert Operation in Italy: Exploding Useful Myths." Intelligence and National Security 26, no. 2 & 3 (Apr.-Jun. 2011): 246-268.

The author suggests that "[a] more fruitful path to advancing the historiographical debate [about the CIA's role in the 1948 Italian elections] is to highlight CIA intervention in the wider context of US foreign relations and Italian policy objectives.... Agency activities were improvised and far from pivotal amid the [broader] American mobilization." Clark comment: This is a highly interesting and well-argued article.

2. "The Case for Political Warfare: Strategy, Organization and US Involvement in the 1948 Italian Election." Cold War History 6, no. 3 (Aug. 2006): 301-329.

From abstract: "This article analyzes US intervention in the Italian election of 1948 and the influence of the campaign on attempts to formulate a comprehensive, coordinated strategy to defeat Soviet Communism…. The campaign in Italy contributed to the core of an emerging Political Warfare strategy, but one that overlooked the crucial contribution of Italian actors, which in the long term compromised both Italian-American relations and US attempts at expanding Political Warfare."

Orsini, Alessandro. Tr., Sarah J. Nodes. Anatomy of the Red Brigades: The Religious Mind-set of Modern Terrorists. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2011.

Freedman, FA 90.5 (Sep.-Oct. 2011), finds that the author of this "remarkable book" stresses "the importance of ideology in legitimating terrorism." However, the book "can be hard going at times, with dollops of pedantic sociology."

Pojmann, Wendy. Italian Women and International Cold War Politics, 1944-1968. Bronx, NY: Fordham University Press, 2013.

From publisher: This work "pays particular attention" to the work of the Socialist/Communist Unione Donne Italiane (UDI) with the pro-Soviet Women's International Democratic Federation (WIDF), and the relationship of the lay Catholic Centro Italiano Femminile (CIF) with the global Catholic organization the World Movement of Mothers (WMM). The author "draws on new and original material from archival collections and oral histories to develop a critical understanding of the important ... period in women's activism between the 1940s and 1970s."

Richelson, Jeffrey T. Foreign Intelligence Organizations. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1988.

Strang, G. Bruce. "Out of Africa? The Gallimberti Affair and Anglo-Italian Relations, 1949-1950." Intelligence and National Security 25, no. 3 (Jun. 2010): 350-369.

After Italian agent in Tripoli Gallimberti committed suicide, "local British military authorities discovered the full range of his illegal activities. Rather than publicly embarrass the Italian government, British Foreign Office officials coerced concessions from the Italian government in exchange for keeping the potential scandal concealed."

Willan, Philip. Puppet Masters: The Political Use of Terrorism in Italy. London: Constable, 1991.

In an excess of obeisance to conspiracy hype, Bull, I&NS 7.4, finds this book to be "an excellent analysis of the state and security services' role in terrorism." Willan's thesis is that "the American and Italian secret services ... colluded with right-wing terrorism and manipulated left-wing terrorism as a means of ... keeping out of power the largest communist party in the west." However, the author "does ... not prove this thesis unequivocally but he offers sufficient evidence for its possible validity."

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