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Covert Action;

Military Intelligence - Desert Shield/Storm;

Iraqi Chemical Weapons;


Operation Iraqi Freedom

Al-Marashi, Ibrahim.

1. "An Insight into the Mindset of Iraq's Security Apparatus." Intelligence and National Security 18, no. 3 (Autumn 2003): 1-23.

Working from documents captured in the 1991 Kurdish revolt in northern Iraq and transferred to the United States, the author concludes that "the mindset of the Iraqi security apparatus is preoccupied with justifying its actions, through a discourse designed to discredit enemies of the state and their activities, at the same time to glorify the actions of the regime against its foes."

2. "The Family, Clan, and Tribal Dynamics of Saddam's Security and Intelligence Network." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 16, no. 2 (Summer 2003): 202-211.

This article reviews the "five primary agencies making up the Iraqi security apparatus.... Along with the Special Republican Guard, they form a vast, complex, and wide-ranging labyrinth of security organizations, with mutually independent intelligence and military units."

3. "Iraqi Intelligence Operations and Objectives in Turkey." Alternatines: Turkish Journal of International Relations 2, no. 1 (Spring 2003): 78-94.

4. "Iraq's Security and Intelligence Network: A Guide and Analysis." Middle East Review of International Affairs 6, no. 3 (Sep. 2002).

5. "Saddam's Security Apparatus during the Invasion of Kuwait and the Kuwaiti Resistance." Journal of Intelligence History 3, no. 2 (Winter 2003). [http://www.intelligence-history.org/jih/previous.html]

From abstract: When Iraq prepared to invade Kuwait in August 1990, the Iraqi security apparatus was "assigned to infiltrate every layer of Kuwaiti society. Hussein tasked these agencies with protecting the regime and state from internal threats posed by the Kuwaiti resistance. The existence of a local resistance posed a tactical military threat as well as a symbolic one."

Anonymous. "Iraqi Human Intelligence Collection on Iran’s Nuclear Weapons Program, 1980–2003." Studies in Intelligence 57, no. 4 (Dec. 2013): 23-30. [https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol-57-no-4/pdfs/Anonymous-Iraqi%20Intel%20on%20Iran-Dec2013.pdf]

"As the [Iran-Iraq] war progressed and then beyond, Iraq became well positioned to assess Iran's nuclear ambitions as its intelligence officers were able to get close to high-level Iranian officials and collect classified information, but when the many factors that influence reporting -- the political, the structural, and the inherent credibility of sources -- are taken into account, Iraqi reporting must be evaluated guardedly."

Coughlin, Con. "Iraq Executes Espionage Chief." Telegraph (London), 17 Oct. 1999. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]

Rafa al-Tikriti, Iraq's head of intelligence since 1996, was executed on 11 October 1999 "for leaking information about Iraq's secret arms deals with Russia." Con Coughlin, "Iraq Execution Blamed on Feud over Succession," Telegraph (London), 17 Oct. 1999, quotes "Iraqi opposition groups in London" for the view that the reason for "al-Tikriti's execution was the bitter rivalry between the intelligence chief and Saddam's eldest son Uday."

Coughlin, Con. "Russian Space Pictures Enable Saddam to Target Gulf States." Telegraph (London), 10 Oct. 1999. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]

"Iraq has signed an agreement to buy satellite intelligence photographs from Russian firms that will enable Saddam Hussein to target his missiles at neighbouring oil-rich Gulf states."

Francona, Rick. Ally to Adversary: An Eyewitness Account of Iraq's Fall from Grace. Annapolis, MD: U.S. Naval Institute Press, 1999.

According to Loeb, "Back Channels," Washington Post, 13 Nov. 2000, 25, Francona was a member of the CIA team that rescued the family of former Iraqi nuclear weapons scientist Khidhir Hamza from northern Iraq in 1995. Jonkers, AFIO WIN 34-99 (27 Aug. 1999), comments that Francona writes in a forthright and very readable fashion, weaving in anecdotes with policy perspectives and situation descriptions. His book contributes to understanding a recent past that is relevant to the present and future. Highly recommended reading." Clark comment: Francona has a Website at http://www.francona.com.

Myers, Steven Lee. "U.S. to Aid Iraqi Opposition to Develop a Military Cadre." New York Times, 28 Oct. 1999. [http://www.nytimes.com]

According to senior U.S. officials, the Clinton Administration "has authorized the first direct military training for opponents of President Saddam Hussein of Iraq.... [F]our Iraqi rebel leaders, including two former officers in Iraq's armed forces, will attend a 10-day training course at the Air Force's special-operations headquarters in Florida, where American officials will school them on how to organize a military in an emerging state."

Sassoon, Joseph. Saddam Hussein's Ba'th Party: Inside an Authoritarian Regime. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Peake, Studies 56.4 (Dec. 2012), notes that "Chapter 4 describes the four principal security organizations in detail.... Sassoon explains the organizations' overlapping, competitive functions and how each gathered information, recruited informers, and carried out surveillance of society."

Smith, Michael. "Fate of Iraqi Mole Led to Spy Clash." Telegraph (London), 4 Feb. 1999. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk]

"The row that led to the naming of the MI6 head of station in Prague began with what should have been a major success story for British intelligence. MI6 had been running an agent in the heart of the Iraqi intelligence service, giving detailed information on Saddam Hussein's attempts to obtain nuclear, chemical and biological weapons technology.

"Jabir Salim, the 43-year-old head of Mukhabarrat operations in Eastern Europe, whose cover was as Iraqi consul in Prague, was an 'agent-in-place', an invaluable source for British intelligence. But just over a month ago, he was 'brought in from the cold' and, according to intelligence sources, is currently being debriefed at a safe house in the Home Counties.'"

Sumaida, Hussein Ali, with Carole Jerome. Circle of Fear: From the Mossad to Iraq's Secret Service. Toronto: Stoddart, 1991. London: Robert Hale, 1992. Circle of Fear: My Life as an Israeli and Iraqi Spy. Washington, DC: Brassey's, 1994.

United States Information Agency. Iraqi Disinformation: Allegations and Facts (Fact Sheet). Washington, DC: 4 February 1991.

Click for text of this document.

Woods, Kevin, and Mark E. Stout. "New Sources for the Study of Iraqi Intelligence during the Saddam Era." Intelligence and National Security 25, no. 4 (Aug. 2010): 547-587.

The authors discuss captured Iraqi documents released by the Department of Defense. The article includes (from page 562) an "Iraqi 'Intelligence Report about Iran for the period from 1 January until 30 June 1980.'"

Wren, Christopher S. "U.S. Gives Its Backing, and Cash, to Anti-Hussein Groups." New York Times, 2 Nov. 1999. [http://www.nytimes.com]

Speaking on 1 November 1999 at a conference held by the Iraqi National Congress (INC) in New York, U.S. Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs Thomas R. Pickering "made clear" that U.S. "support for Iraqi dissidents would be channeled through the Iraqi National Congress."

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