Click for material on Finland's role in World War II.

Davies, Philip H. J., and Kristian C. Gustafson, eds. Intelligence Elsewhere: Spies and Espionage Outside the Anglosphere. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2013.

Heard, Studies 59.1 (Mar. 2015), calls this work "a remarkably ambitious, edited collection of essays on the intelligence activities and organizations of a dozen countries or regions of the world." The book is divided into two sections. "The first contains four studies of what might be called the 'deep history' of intelligence in ancient China, India, the Byzantine Empire..., and the Islamic world. The book's second section has chapters on contemporary intelligence issues in Pakistan, Iran, Indonesia, Japan, Ghana, Argentina, Sweden, and Finland."

Jacobsen, Alf R. "Scandinavia, Sigint and the Cold War." Intelligence and National Security 16, no. 1 (Spring 2001): 209-242.

Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden were all "deeply engaged in signals intelligence collection against the Soviet Union throughout the Cold War, albeit in great secrecy.... Available evidence suggests that Sweden, despite its neutrality, maintained a substantial clandestine Sigint sharing relationship with the US and Great Britain, particularly during the early stages of the Cold War."

Lackman, Matti. "The Finnish Secret Police and Political Intelligence: Their Methods and Collaborators in the 1920s and 30s." Scandinavian Journal of History 12, no. 3 (1987): 199-219. [Calder]

Rislakki, Jukka. "Finland's Military Intelligence in War and Peace." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 21, no. 3 (Fall 2008): 461-486.

"The present article was written to provide a general survey of the topic for American readers without a reading knowledge of Finnish." (p. 479/fn. 1)

Teirilä, Olli J. "Small State Intelligence Dilemmas: Struggling between Common Threat Perceptions and National Priorities." International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 28, no. 2 (Summer 2015): 215-235.

The discussion focuses on Finland.

Weller, Geoffrey R.

1. "Political Scrutiny and Control of Scandinavia's Security and Intelligence Services." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 13, no. 2 (Summer 2000): 171-192.

The author covers the services of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden.

2. "Scandinavian Security and Intelligence, the European Union, WEU and NATO." Scandinavian Studies 70, no. 1 (Spring 1988): 70-86.

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