Europe and the European Union

Andre, Christopher. "The Future of European Security and the Role of Intelligence." Irish Studies in International Affairs 8 (1997): 49-56.

Bures, Oldrich. "EU Counterterrorism Policy: A Paper Tiger?" Terrorism and Political Violence 18, no. 1 (2006): 57-78.

Colpin, Noël, and Harald Haelterman. "Customs' Role in Managing Security at the EU's External Borders: A Risk Management and Intelligence Approach." European Journal of Intelligence Studies 2 (2008): 87-98. [http://www.ejis.eu]

Donath, Jaap. "A European Community Intelligence Organization." Defense Intelligence Journal 2, no. 1 (Spring 1993): 15-33.

The European Community (EC) "needs a strategic intelligence organization comparable to the Central Intelligence Agency.... [T]he ECIO should not engage in covert actions.... Its most important task would be the analysis of overtly gathered information and preparing it for use by the policymakers.... It would ... be advisable to begin the ECIO on a small scale and only as a coordinating body for intelligence gathered by the national intelligence services. The model for such a system could be Interpol.... For the long-term prospect the ECIO should become an organization which recruits and trains its own personnel for all the information gathering."

Dubois, Dorine. "The Attacks of 11 September: EU-US Cooperation against Terrorism in the Field of Justice and Home Affairs." European Foreign Affairs Review 7, no. 3 (2002): 317-335.

Duke, Simon. "Intelligence, Security and Information Flows in CFSP." Intelligence and National Security 21, no. 4 (Aug. 2006): 604-630.

From abstract: "This article traces the growth of the intelligence support role that a number of relatively small bodies have assumed within the European Union's Common Foreign and Security Policy [CFSP].... The article concludes that a new type of intelligence capability is gradually emerging at the European level."

Fägersten, Björn. "Bureaucratic Resistance to International Intelligence Cooperation -- The Case of Europol." Intelligence and National Security 25, no. 4 (Aug. 2010): 500-520.

"The empirical focus of th[is] study is Europe's counter terrorim intelligence cooperation as it has developed within the European Police Office (Europol).... The key argument ... is that we must look beyond state preferences and study also the impact of various bureaucratic factors to better understand the variation in form and function of arrangements for intelligence cooperation."

Herman, Michael. "Intelligence's Future: Learning From the Past." Journal of Intelligence History 3, no. 2 (Winter 2003). [http://www.intelligence-history.org/jih/previous.html]

From abstract: "The British political crisis in 2004 over the government's 'dossier' on Iraqi WMD ... illustrates the problems of intelligence's new public profile. It also points to the lessons to be learned from its assessment failures on this subject. These point towards establishing a European assessment machinery, a kind of Brussels Joint Intelligence Committee; and also towards encouraging intelligence professionalism everywhere."

Hess, Sigurd. "Intelligence Cooperation in Europe 1990 to the Present." Journal of Intelligence History 3, no. 1 (Summer 2003). [http://www.intelligence-history.org/ jih/previous.html]

From abstract: This article "addresses the many forms of [European] bilateral and multilateral intelligence cooperation.... The many obstacles to the development of a European intelligence policy as well as the factors driving the intelligence cooperation are discussed. Whether EU members have the political will and enough financial resources necessary to implement the momentous Helsinki declarations of December 1999 will also set the pace for an European intelligence policy."

Jeffreys-Jones, Rhodri. "Rise, Fall and Regeneration: From CIA to EU." Intelligence and National Security 24, no. 1 (Feb. 2009): 103-118.

From abstract: "The rise of the CIA and its Cold War analytical successes provided Europe with a model of how a federal polity might conduct foreign intelligence. The shortcomings and recent decline of the CIA are instructive, too, and have the additional effect of adding urgency to the need for the European Union to develop its own intelligence capability."

Müller-Wille, Björn. "The Effect of International Terrorism on EU Intelligence Co-operation." Journal of Common Market Studies 48, no. 1 (Jan. 2008): 49-73.

From Abstract: "While the US has revamped its intelligence community by creating the Department of Homeland Security, little seems to have happened at the European level. The article seeks to explain why some intelligence co-operation takes place within the EU and why the bulk does not.... [I]t proposes that efficiency considerations offer the most convincing explanation why no new European Intelligence Agency has been created and why so little co-operation takes place within EU structures."

Müller-Wille, Björn. "Improving the Democratic Accountability of EU Intelligence." Intelligence and National Security 21, no. 1 (Feb. 2006): 100-128.

The author "identifies the establishment of mechanisms for quality control of EU intelligence as the main challenge at the EU level."

Nomikos, John M. "A European Union Intelligence Service for Confronting Terrorism." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 18, no. 2 (Summer 2005): 191-203.

The author argues that "the European Union should establish [a] ... permanent European Union Intelligence Service" (EUIS). It "should initially be small in size, and be primarily a gathering point for information coming from the national intelligence organizations of the EU member-states."

Vaz Antunes, Joao Nuno Jorge. "The European Union: Developing an Intelligence Capability." Studies in Intelligence 49, no. 4 (2005): 65-70.

A Portuguese Major General, the author "directs the European Union Military Staff's Intelligence Division." Here, he outlines the origins, mission, and structure of the EU's Military Staff and its Intelligence Division.

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