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Ackerman, Robert K. "Intelligence Aim Veers to Amassing Overt Information." Signal, Aug. 1993, 37 ff. []

Aftergood, Steven. "Intelligence and the Open Source Challenge." Secrecy News (from the FAS Project on Government Secrecy), 2 May 2001. []

According to the "Strategic Investment Plan for Intelligence Community Analysis," produced by the National Intelligence Production Board (NIPB), "[t]he NIPB has made the development of an Intelligence Community strategy for open source a top priority for investment and concerted action over the next few years." In addition, the Intelligence Community "also needs to exploit the Internet and other open media more effectively and efficiently."

Bagnall, J. J. "The Exploitation of Russian Scientific Literature for Intelligence Purposes." Studies in Intelligence 2, no. 3 (Summer 1958): 45-48.

The amount of available Soviet scientific literature increased significantly from 1947 to 1956. The Air Force and the CIA both have ongoing efforts to exploit this material. There are also efforts outside the intelligence community, including bibliographic guides, specialized indexes, and abstracting services.

Becker, Joseph. "Comparative Survey of Soviet and US Access to Published Information." Studies in Intelligence 1, no. 4 (Fall 1957): 35-46.

"In general, US open source publications provide the Soviets with certain types of military intelligence and other valuable scientific and technical information, while Soviet publications provide the US with a reliable index to the over-all development of the Soviet system and a multiplicity of facts about its current status."

Betts, Mitch. "Agents Spy Internet Data." Computerworld 28 (1 Aug. 1994): 1, 101.

Comments from Joseph Markowitz, "director of the CIA's Community Open Source Program Office," on Intelligence Community components hooking up to the Internet "to collect and share 'open-source,' or unclassified, information." On the use of open-source information generally, Markowitz states: "The creation of our office is a recognition that open sources are a valuable resource. As we draw back in some parts of the world, our office provides an information safety net."

Bowen, Wyn. "Open-Source Intel: A Valuable National Security Resource." Jane's Intelligence Review, 1 Nov. 1999.

This article first offers "definitions of open-source information (OSINF) and open-source intelligence (OSINT). This is followed by a consideration of the utility of open sources in terms of complementing classified information. The article then proceeds with a brief conceptual consideration of the key steps in setting up and operating an open-source collection system. Key issues and problems associated with open source collection are subsequently highlighted. Finally, to provide an idea of the availability and scope of open sources with relevance to national security, some examples related to monitoring proliferation threats are provided."

Calkins, Laura M. "Patrolling the Ether: US-UK Open Source Intelligence Cooperation and the BBC's Emergence as an Intelligence Agency, 1939-1948." Intelligence and National Security 26, no. 1 (Feb. 2011): 1-22.

"By early 1942,... a small FBMS [the FCC's Foreign Broadcast Monitoring Service] outpost was established at the [BBC] Monitoring Service facility at Wood Norton." In April 1943, the Monitoring Service "completed its relocation to the Caversham facility," where both FBIS (the FBMS's new name) and OWI were given offices in the main building. "[B]ilateral arrangements on the exchange of BBC and FBIS Osint from broadcast monitoring were finally concluded ... in November 1948." (Footnotes omitted)

Clark, J. Ransom. "Collection and Use of Open Source Intelligence." In NATO Open Source Intelligence Reader, 98-103. Brussels, Belgium: NATO and SACEUR, Feb. 2002. []

Clift, A. Denis. "National Security and National Competitiveness: Open Source Solutions." American Intelligence Journal 14, nos. 2 & 3 (Spring-Summer 1993): 25-28.

Chief of Staff, DIA, from July 1991.

Cote, Maureen. "Translation Error and Political Misinterpretation." Studies in Intelligence 27, no. 4 (Winter 1983): 11-19.

Dandar, Edward F., Jr.

1. "Open Source Info." INSCOM Journal, Jan.-Feb. 1997, 16ff.

2. "Open Source Information Strategy." INSCOM Journal, May-Jun. 1997, 32ff.

The main thrust of these two articles is articulated in the following excerpt: "Intelligence experts must continue exploring ... open source information acquisition and exploitation alternatives, such as the use of commercial vendors, universities and military reservists. The intelligence community should explore simultaneous employment of these resources. These external internal community assets are uniquely capable of handling the information explosion and support a number of intelligence community and military core business areas."

Clark comment: It is instructive that neither article mentions existing Intelligence Community resources for the acquisition and processing of open-source information. The suggestions for enhancing Community access to open sources clearly have been influenced by Robert D. Steele (see below) of Open Source Solutions, Inc., whose assistance is recognized at the conclusion of the second article. Although I have nothing but respect for Mr. Steele's entrepreneurial spirit and acumen, he is not the first person to discover the value of open-source material (the predecessor organization of the CIA's Foreign Broadcast Information Service -- now, the DNI's Open Source Center -- predates World War II). Whether intelligence decisionmakers should move away from long-established and cost-effective governmental open-source collection and management resources toward private-sector-generated materials is worthy of some debate.

Friedman, Richard S. "Open Source Intelligence." Parameters 28, no. 2 (Summer 1998): 159-165. []

Friedman's essay "explores the significance of a trend toward increased recognition of the role of open source information and discusses what this may mean for intelligence consumers at every level."

Gwynne, Sam C. "Spies Like Us: The Internet Is Changing the World's Most Dangerous Game." Time, 25 Jan. 1999, 48.

Clark comment: If you can get beyond the the silly (and incorrect) title (there are plenty of games in which there have been more deaths than the spy business), this article is about the growth of the use of open-source intelligence in the business world.

"[T]he World Wide Web has given birth to a whole industry of point-and-click spying. The spooks call it 'open-source intelligence,' and as the Net grows, it is becoming increasingly influential.... Among the firms making the biggest splash in this new world is Stratfor, Inc., a private intelligence-analysis firm based in Austin, Texas. Stratfor makes money by selling the results of its sleuthing (covering nations from China to Chile) to corporations like energy-services firm McDermott International. Many of its predictions are available online at"

Holden-Rhodes, James F.

1. Sharing the Secrets: Open Source Intelligence and the War on Drugs. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1997.

According to Turner, IJI&C 12.1, this work presents a brief, "useful[,] and instructive" critique of U.S. anti-drug policies and activities. However, the author "ultimately falls short" on his promise to show how open-source intelligence can be made "a fundamental part of the drug war."

2. "Unlocking the Secrets: Open Source Intelligence in the War on Drugs." American Intelligence Journal 14, nos. 2 & 3 (Spring-Summer 1993): 67-71.

This is a succinct presentation of some of the thoughts that the author develops in his Sharing the Secrets.

Hutchinson, Robert. "Rumor of War: An Information Vendor's View of the Provision of Open-Source Data in an Unstable World." American Intelligence Journal 14, nos. 2 & 3 (Spring-Summer 1993): 33-36.

Hutchinson is an editor of Jane's.

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