H - Z

Hager, Nicky. Secret Power: New Zealand's Role in the International Spy Network. Nelson, New Zealand: Craig Potton Publishing, 1996.

Harris, Shane. The Watchers: The Rise of America's Surveillance State. New York: Penguin, 2010.

Brooks, Proceedings 136.7 (Jul. 2010) and Intelligencer 18.1 (Fall-Winter 2010), finds that "[t]here is little new" here, but there is value in the author's telling of the story, "his exhaustive research, and extensive interviews with many of the primary players. Harris traces the efforts to build massive data bases of information and communications and to structure a data-mining effort to extract intelligence from data." This "is an interesting and well-written history of how we arrived at where we are."

For Peake, Studies 54.3 (Sep. 2010), although the author "does not resolve the question of how to protect privacy and meet the national intelligence mission,... he does suggest that now is the time to debate the issue, not after the next terrorist attack."

Hayden, Michael V. [LTGEN/USAF, DIRNSA] "Background on NSA: History, Oversight. Relevance for Today." Defense Intelligence Journal 9, no. 2 (Summer 2000): 13-26.

"[S]lightly reformatted and edited version" of the DIRNSA's presentation at American University on 17 February 2000 and his testimony before the HPSCI on 12 April 2000.

Ingram, Jack E. [Curator, National Cryptologic Museum] "The Origins of NSA." American Intelligence Journal 15, no. 1 (Spring-Summer 1994): 39-42.

Isaacson, Walter. Kissinger: A Biography. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.

Johnson, Thomas R. American Cryptology during the Cold War, 1945-1989. Ft. George G. Meade, MD: National Security Agency, Center for Cryptologic History, c. 1995-1998. Redacted version of vols. 1-3 available at

The National Security Archive site listed above includes a commentary by Matthew M. Aid, "The National Security Agency during the Cold War." Aid calls this work "a unique and invaluable study for readers interested in the history of U.S. intelligence during the Cold War." Johnson's history has a "refreshing openness and honesty"; he acknowledges "both the NSA's impressive successes ... and abject failures."

Burke, Cryptologia 33.2 (Apr. 2009), says that this work's "comprehensive coverage of the subject, the skill and devotion of its author, and the research and writing that took close to ten years ... have yielded a foundational work." Johnson's "volumes stand as a resource for independent scholars and a fascinating reading for the general public." The reviewer notes that redactions from the volumes "increased as the subjects seemingly became relevant to more recent time periods, events, and operations."

Levy, Steven. Crypto: How the Code Rebels Beat the Government -- Saving Privacy in the Digital Age. New York Viking, 2001.

Powers, NYRB, 21 Jun. 2001, and Intelligence Wars (2004), 243-255, finds that this work recounts "in lively detail" NSA's "clandestine campaign" against public encryption. "How these [public key] systems actually work is complicated but not dauntingly so," and Powers "urge[s] interested readers to consult Levy's book."

Powers, Thomas. "Notes from Underground." New York Review of Books, 21 Jun. 2001. Chapter 17 in Intelligence Wars: American Secret History from Hitler to Al-Qaeda, 257-273. Rev. & exp. ed. New York: New York Review of Books, 2004.

Primarily a review of Bamford's Body of Secrets (2001), this article also mentions Levy's Crypto (2001), which deals with the battle over public encryption.

National Cryptologic School. On Watch: Profiles from the National Security Agency's Past 40 Years. Ft. George G. Meade, MD: 1986.

Shane, Scott, and Tom Bowman. "No Such Agency." Baltimore Sun, reprint of six-part series, 3-15 December 1995, 1-16.

Tully, Andrew. The Super Spies: The Inside Story of NSA -- America's Biggest, Most Secret, Most Powerful Spy Agency. New York: Morrow, 1969. New York: Pocket Books, 1970. [pb]

This was not that well done at the time it was published. The existence of Bamford's The Puzzle Palace makes it little more than a curiosity item today.

Williams, Jeannette, with Yolande Dickerson. The Invisible Cryptologists: African-Americans, WWII to 1956. Ft. George G. Meade, MD: National Security Agency, Center for Cryptologic History, 2001. []

The author's "exhaustive search of the cryptologic archives ... recovered the basic story of the segregated cryptologic organizations -- including the previously unknown existence of a large office of African-Americans in World War II."

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