1990 - 1998

Materials presented in chronological order.

Beyers, Dan. "The National Security Agency Exists -- Pass It On." Washington Post National Weekly Edition, 2-8 Sep. 1991, 31.

Gertz, Bill. "Electronic Spying Reoriented at NSA." Washington Times, 27 Jan. 1992, A4.

Kirkwood, Cort. "Our Friendly Neighborhood Colony of Spies." Cryptolog 15, no. 1 (Jan. 1994): 1, 8-9, 18.

McConnell, J. M. [VADM/USN, DIRNSA/Chief, CSS] "New World, New Challenges: NSA Into the 21st Century." American Intelligence Journal 15, no. 1 (Spring-Summer 1994): 7-10.

Monteiro, Alfred, Jr. "Mustering the Force: Cryptologic Support to Military Operations." Defense Intelligence Journal 4, no. 2 (Fall 1995): 67-82. "Cryptologic Support to Military Operations." American Intelligence Journal 17, no. 3/4 (1997): 39-44.

NSA has adopted a broad definition of "warfighter": "Any individual, regardless of rank or position, responsible for making operational decisions which result in the use of military forces. This includes everyone from the President, deciding whether or not to commit troops to battle, to the individual soldier, airman or marine deciding whether or not to fire."

Pincus, Walter. "[House] Panel Ties NSA Funds To Changes at Agency: Report Urges Strategic, Business Planning." Washington Post, 7 May 1998, A21.

HPSCI threatened on 6 May 1998 "to withhold funds from the $4 billion National Security Agency (NSA) unless the worldwide eavesdropping organization makes 'very large changes' in its 'culture and methods of operation.'". The committee also called on DCI George J. Tenet to take a more active role in managing the overall intelligence community budget of about $27 billion." The committee criticized the NRO "saying last year's hopes that the switch to smaller satellites and acquisition reforms would free some funds have 'not been fulfilled.'"

Loeb, Vernon. "Finding the Secret to Downsizing? NSA Moves Workers to Private Sector." Washington Post, 29 Sep. 1998, A15. []

"Moving to thin its ranks without angering its troops," NSA "has pioneered a scheme to encourage early retirement by moving hundreds of aging spies and technocrats seamlessly onto the payrolls of NSA's largest and most trusted contractors."

Ackerman, Robert K. "Information Age Poses New Challenges to Intelligence." Signal, Oct. 1998, 23-25. []

DIRNSA Lt. Gen. Kenneth A. Minihan, USAF, believes that the future of intelligence holds "a completely new technical environment." That future will be characterized by "the shifting of U.S. strategic value from the industrial base to the content of the network-centric information infrastructure. This promises to redefine concepts of security and conflict."

Brewin, Bob. "Web Docs Show NSA Forecast Bloody Tet Offensive." Federal Computer Week, 2 Oct. 1998. []

According to Ford, CIA and the Vietnam Policy Makers (1998), "[i]ntercepts of enemy radio communications collected and collated" by NSA "provided U.S. commanders in Vietnam with more than two weeks' notice of the bloody 1968 Tet Offensive.... [Ford] told Federal Computer Week that he received permission from NSA to refer to its still-classified history of NSA operations in Vietnam."

Thompson, Neal. "Putting NSA Under Scrutiny." Baltimore Sun, 18 Oct. 1998, 1C.

Gertz, Bill. "After 3 Years, NSA Chief Quitting Post." Washington Times National Weekly Edition, 2-8 Nov. 1998, 17.

DIRNSA Air Force Lt. Gen. Kenneth A. Minihan announced in an internal e-mail to NSA employees in August that he will be leaving his post in March 1999, having completed his 3-year tour. It was reported that Minihan wanted to stay on an additional year, but an administration official denied that the general was being forced out. "A leading candidate to replace [Minihan] is Lt. Gen. Claudia Kennedy, the Army's deputy chief of staff for itelligence.... If Gen. Kennedy is picked, the NSA would have women in its two top positions. The deputy NSA director is Barbara McNamara, a civilian."

Verton, Daniel, and L. Scott Tillett. "European Union May Investigate U.S. Global Spy Computer Network." Federal Computer Week, 17 Nov. 1998. []

"The European Union is considering launching a full-scale investigation into whether the National Security Agency is abusing its massive and highly advanced surveillance network to spy on government and private groups around the world."

Loeb, Vernon. "NSA Admits to Holding Secret Information on Princess Diana." Washington Post, 12 Dec. 1998, A13. []

NSA "has disclosed that U.S. intelligence is holding 1,056 pages of classified information about the late Princess Diana, inspiring a flurry of sensational headlines this week across London's tabloids.... The source of the Fleet Street speculation was a simple, two-page NSA denial of a Freedom of Information Act request. In the denial, released last month, the super-secret U.S. spy agency admitted possessing a Diana file.

"The document says nothing about the contents of those 1,056 secret pages, why they were gathered or how they were obtained. One U.S. intelligence official said [on 11 December 1998] that the references to Diana in intercepted conversations were 'incidental.' Diana, the official insisted, was never a 'target' of the NSA's massive, worldwide electronic eavesdropping infrastructure."

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