Through 1980s

Armed Forces Management. Editors. "National Security Agency." 9, no. 2 (1962): 103-104. [Petersen]

Bamford, James.

1. "Big Brother Is Listening." Washington Post Magazine, 4 Dec. 1983, 34-35. [Petersen]

2. "NSA -- Projects and Prospects." Intelligence Quarterly 1, no. 2 (1985): 5-6. [Petersen]

Barrett, David M. "Secrecy, Security, and Sex: The NSA, Congress, and the Martin-Mitchell Defections." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 22, no. 4 (Winter 2009): 699-729.

It "seems fair and accurate" to say that congressional oversight of NSA from late1952 through the summer of 1960 "was almost nonexistant.... When Martin's and Mitchell's spectacular defections and press conference in Moscow unfolded, the 'alarms' set off in the United States were sufficient to provoke a relatively assertive response from Capitol Hill which did, indeed, result in changes of NSA policies and procedures. Having said that, no available evidence suggests that monitoring of the NSA by legislators became even close to comprehensive during the remainder of the 1960s."

Burnham, David. "The Silent Power of the NSA." New York Times Magazine (27 Mar. 1983): 60, 62-64, 66-67. [Petersen]

Campbell, Duncan, and Linda Melvern. "America's Big Ear on Europe." New Statesman, 18 Jul. 1980, 10-14.

Deavours, Cipher A. "Shutting Off the Spigot in 1981." Cryptologia 5, no. 1 (1981): 43-45.

Hudec, James G. "Commentary: Unlucky SHAMROCK -- The View from the Other Side." Studies in Intelligence 10 (Winter-Spring 2001): 85-94. []

This commentary is a response to L. Britt Snider, "Recollections from the Church Committee's Investigation of NSA," Studies in Intelligence (Winter 1999-2000). Hudec was an attorney in NSA's Office of General Counsel during the 1974-1975 timeframe.

Polmar, Norman. "American Spy Ships." U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 129, no. 10 (Oct. 2003): 117-118.

This is an excellent quick look at specialized U.S. intelligence ships, utilized by both NSA and the Navy from 1961 until after the Pueblo incident in 1968.

Powers, Thomas. "The Ears of America." New York Review of Books, 3 Feb. 1983. Chapter 16 in Intelligence Wars: American Secret History from Hitler to Al-Qaeda, 243-255. Rev. & exp. ed. New York: New York Review of Books, 2004.

This is Powers' take on Bamford's The Puzzle Palace (1982) and on NSA in general. It has at least one egregious error: Linking FBIS' daily output to NSA's collection effort indicates a basic failure to check one's facts before committing them to paper.

Snider, L. Britt. "Unlucky SHAMROCK: Recollections from the Church Committee's Investigation of NSA." Studies in Intelligence (Winter 1999-2000): 43-51. []

The author, CIA's Inspector General, was staff counsel on the Church Committee. Here, he revisits some of the difficulties in beginning an investigation of an agency "that had never before had an oversight relationship with the Congress." The focus is the uncovering -- and the aftermath of that discovery -- of Operation Shamrock, through which NSA "had access for many years to most of the international telegrams leaving New York City for foreign destinations."

See James G. Hudec, "Commentary: Unlucky SHAMROCK -- The View from the Other Side," Studies in Intelligence 10 (Winter-Spring 2001): 85-94, which responds with a view from the Executive Branch side to Snider. Hudec was an attorney in NSA's Office of General Counsel during the 1974-1975 timeframe.

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