1995 - 1996

Materials arranged chronologically.


U.S. National Reconnaissance Office. NRO Public Affairs. "Press Release -- President Orders Declassification of Historic Satellite Imagery Citing Value of Photography to Environmental Science." 24 Feb. 1995. []

On 24 February 1995, President Clinton directed "the declassification of imagery obtained by the first generation of photo-reconnaissance satellites; the CORONA, ARGON and LANYARD systems. The order will cause the declassification of more than 800,000 satellite images of the earth's surface, collected by these satellites between 1960 and 1972. By the end of an eighteen-month transition period, the public will be given access to this imagery that can be used to assist environmental studies and other civilian applications."

Aerospace Daily. Editors. "Declassification Unveils More Details of NRO Structure." 25 Apr. 1995, 129.

Harris, Jeffrey K. "Meeting the Challenge Then, Now and Tomorrow: The National Reconnaissance Office Enters the 21st Century." American Intelligence Journal 16, no. 1 (Spring/Summer 1995): 27-31.

Pincus, Walter. "Spy Agency Hoards Secret $1 Billion; Satellite Managers Did Not Tell Supervisors of Classified 'Pot of Gold,' Hill Sources Say." Washington Post, 24 Sep. 1995, A1, A22. "The $1 Billion in the Spy Satellite Agency Cookie Jar." Washington Post National Weekly Edition, 2-8 Oct. 1995, 31.

Pear, Robert. "Disclosure of Spy Agency's $1.5 Billion Fund Leads to Shake-Up." New York Times, 25 Sep. 1995, A12 (N).

DCI Deutch has "appointed a new chief financial officer" for the NRO, and "ordered the agency to document its practices for handling money. He also ordered a thorough review of the agency's budget."

Cassata, Donna. "Spy Agency's $1 Billion Cache Draws Members Wrath." Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 30 Sep. 1995, 3019.

Space News. "[Editorial:] Who Watches the Watchers?" 2-8 Oct. 1995, 18.

"Those in NRO responsible for its recent funding debacles should be dismissed.... NRO has a record of achievement in the 1991 Desert Storm conflict and elsewhere.... But this does not excuse its casual disregard of the fundamental responsibilities of all U.S. government agencies."

Defense News. Editors. "NRO's Secret Fund May be Even Bigger." 23-29 Oct. 1995, 2.

Cassata, Donna. "Members Fear Fiscal Crackdown May Sap Spy Agency." Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 25 Nov. 1995, 3604-3605.

U.S. Congress. House. Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. NRO Headquarters Facility. Washington, DC: GPO, 1995.

U.S. Congress. Senate. Select Committee on Intelligence. NRO Headquarters Project. Washington, DC: GPO, 1995.


Weiner, Tim. "A Secret Agency's Secret Budgets Yield 'Lost' Billions, Officials Say." New York Times, 30 Jan. 1996, A1, A5 (N).

New York Times. "[Editorial:] The Spy Agency That Lost $2 Billion." 1 Feb. 1996, A14 (N).

Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report. Editors. "More Surplus Funds Found in Spy Agency Coffers." 3 Feb. 1996, 309.

The SSCI chairman and vice chairman have voiced concerns about the existence of an additional $820 million surplus in NRO funds that the Clinton administration wants to use to help cover the costs of the Bosnia peacekeeping mission.

Weiner, Tim. "After Errant $2 Billion, Spy Satellite Agency Heads Are Ousted." New York Times, 27 Feb. 1996, A9 (N).

Aerospace Daily. Editors. "NRO Chief Harris and Deputy Director Hill Are Fired." 27 Feb. 1996, 293, 295.

Anselmo, Joseph C. "NRO Chief, Deputy Fired in Agency Shakeup." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 4 Mar. 1996, 28.

Capaccio, Tony. "From Deep Black to the Web, NRO Hits Cyberspace." Defense Week, 11 Mar. 1996, 2.

Commenting on NRO's Web site at

Aerospace Daily. Editors. "House Intelligence Presses NRO on Small Satellites." 20 May 1996, 292-293.

Anselmo, Joseph C. "NRO Lost Track of $4 Billion." Aviation Week & Space Technology, 20 May 1996, 71.

Wilhelm, Richard J. "The New NRO: A CMS Perspective." American Intelligence Journal 17, no. 1/2 (1996): 53-55.

[Deutch, John.] "The Future of the National Reconnaissance Program." NMIA Newsletter 11, no. 2 (1996): 13-16.

Pincus, Walter. "Panel Set Up by CIA Recommends Building Smaller, Cheaper Spy Satellites." Washington Post, 30 Jun. 1996, A11.

Jeremiah Panel. "Defining the Future of the NRO for the 21st Century: Report to the Director, National Reconnaissance Office. Final Report: Executive Summary, 26 August 1996." []

This is text of the Executive Summary of the report prepared by the panel chaired by David E. Jeremiah [ADM/USN (Ret.)]. The panel was appointed following the difficulties encountered by the NRO in 1994 (building flap) and 1995 (unspent funds), which had led to dismissal of the organization's director and deputy director in February 1996. The Panel concluded that "the NRO continues to be the right organizational answer to the nation's space reconnaissance needs in the future because it serves the national and military equities represented by the SECDEF and DCI." In addition, the Executive Summary presents 12 issues and makes recommendations on each.

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