Defense Science Board/Air Force Scientific Advisory Board Joint Task Force. Acquisition of National Security Space Programs. Washington, DC: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, May 2003. [Text of this report is available at:]

Steven Aftergood, "Military Space Programs in Disarray," Secrecy News, 5 Sep. 2003, notes that the DSB/AFSCB report finds that there are "systemic problems" in the U.S. military and national security space programs. This includes the conclusion that "the next generation spy satellite program, known as the Future Imagery Architecture, is 'technically flawed' ... and 'not executable.'"

Merle, Renae. "Boeing Satellite Project Criticized: Funding, Delays Concern Panel." Washington Post, 6 Sep. 2003, E1. []

A report by the Pentagon's Defense Science Board says that Boeing's Future Imagery Architecture [FIA] "project to develop the next generation of spy satellites has been significantly underfunded and has suffered from technical shortcomings." The program "can be 'mitigated sufficiently' to permit" it to continue, "but was 'not executable' as it existed before recent changes." Spokesman Art Haubold said that the NRO "has already addressed many of the concerns raised by the report.... About $4 billion was added to the program in January to initiate changes, including new deadlines and more testing of technology....

"Another program spotlighted by the report, Lockheed Martin's Space Based Infrared-High satellite program [SBIRS], which will act as an early warning system for incoming missiles, 'could be considered a case study for how not to execute a space program,' the report said. The program lacks experienced personnel and has counted on unproven approaches because they promised cost savings, the report said."

See Defense Science Board/Air Force Scientific Advisory Board Joint Task Force, Acquisition of National Security Space Programs (Washington, DC: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, May 2003).

Messer, William. "Getting Space-Based ISR Data to Warfighters." Military Review, Nov.-Dec. 2001, 42-45.

Roesler, Gordon, and Allan Steinhardt. "Space-Based Radar Lets the Navy See It All." U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 128.9 (Sep. 2002): 56-58.

"Space-based radar could provide a level of awareness that is hundreds of times faster, clearer, and more complete than today's intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) toolbox."

Ross, William A.

1. "Space Support to the Warrior: The Intelligence Professional's Responsibility." American Intelligence Journal 15, no. 2 (Autumn-Winter 1994): 72-76.

The author concludes that "space warfare has arrived and DESERT STORM was the first space war." To make space work for the intelligence professional in supporting the warfighter "the military intelligence community needs to ... define space war fighting doctrine and vision and ... [develop] a robust and dynamic intelligence-wide training program."

2. "Space Support to the Warfighter." Military Intelligence 21, no. 1 (Jan.-Mar. 1995): 23-25, 53.

"[T]he intelligence community has yet to develop a clear direction, policy, and doctrine regarding space application, system requirements, and training.... Desert Storm proved space-based capabilities are invaluable for threat warning and mission execution.... A significant lesson learned from Desert Storm is the criticality of operational electronic intelligence (ELINT) analysis.... MI professionals ... currently lack the necessary tools and understanding to effectively support the warfighter with space intelligence."

Sweetman, Bill. "Making Sense Out of Military Space." International Defense Review (Sep. 1993): 705-710.

Teets, Peter. "National Security Space in the Twenty-First Century." Air and Space Power Journal 18, no. 2 (Summer 2004): 4-8.

The Air Force Undersecretary and NRO Director writes: "Our challenge lies in shaping a future which will ensure that our space capabilities support tomorrow's successes. To meet that challenge, we will focus on five top priorities: achieving mission success in operations and acquisition, developing and maintaining a team of space professionals, integrating space capabilities for national intelligence and war fighting, producing innovative solutions for the most challenging national security problems, and ensuring freedom of action in space."

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