Materials presented chronologically.
Fahey, John A. Licensed to Spy: With the Top Secret Military Liaison Mission in East Germany. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2002.
From advertisement: This is the author's "firsthand account of his activities as a U.S. naval officer in East Germany.... As a member of a military liaison mission established in a ... 1947 agreement between U.S. and Soviet forces, [he] was legally permitted to perform surveillance in East Germany and took advantage of the opportunity to conduct dangerous intelligence missions." For Peake, Studies 46.4, "[t]his is a valuable memoir, the first to tell the story of this important American military organization. Seamon, Proceedings, Dec. 2002, refers to this as "a well-told tale."
Hoyt, Stephen V. "Cold War Pioneers in Combined Intelligence and Analysis." Intelligence and National Security 23, no. 4 (Aug. 2008): 463-487.
In the early 1980s, the United States Military Liaison Mission (USMLM) in East Germany "became the first Humint integrated collection, analysis and production center."
Bonner, Raymond. "Secret Pentagon Intelligence Unit Is Disclosed." New York Times, 11 May 1983, A13.
This report discusses the plan (MONARCH EAGLE) to create a Defense Department human intelligence organization. The plan did not get past the relevant congressional committees.
Lardner, George J., Jr. "U.S. Military Spies in Fedoras?" Washington Post, 18 Jul. 1990.
Reports an early expression by the miltary intelligence leadership of an interest in establishing overseas front companies to aid the covert collection activities.
Jonkers, Roy K. [COL/USAF (Ret.)] "Editor's Prologue." American Intelligence Journal 14, no. 3 (Autumn-Winter 1993-1994): 6.
Refers to the "creation of the Defense HUMINT Service on 2 November 1993, to be accomplished by [FY 1997], including the transfer of functions, personnel and resources from the Services. It will involve creating a [DHS] with a single joint manning authorization and a consolidated HUMINT budget within the GDIP. The Director of DIA will be responsible for running this organization under the overview of the ASD (C3I) and the DepSecDef."
Leide, John A. [MAJGEN/USA] "Defense HUMINT: A Challenge for the 90s." American Intelligence Journal 14, no. 1 (Autumn-Winter 1993-1994): 15- 16.
O'Shaughnessy, Gary W. [MGEN/USAF] "Air Force HUMINT." American Intelligence Journal 14, no 1 (Autumn-Winter 1993-1994): 17-20.
Scanlon, Charles F. [MAJGEN/USA] "A Strategy to Maximize Military Human Intelligence." American Intelligence Journal 14, no. 1 (Autumn-Winter 1993-1994): 9-13.
Sheafer, Edward D., Jr. [RADM] "Navy HUMINT." American Intelligence Journal 14, no 1 (Autumn-Winter 1993-1994): 21-22.
Ullman, Donald F. [COL/USA] "HUMINT in the Military." American Intelligence Journal 14, no. 1 (Autumn-Winter 1993-1994): 71-73.
Re importance of "military HUMINT" and relationship of HUMINT to doctrine of AirLand Operations.
Starr, Barbara. "Military Network Now Handles DOD HUMINT." Jane's Defence Weekly, 11 Mar. 1995, 13.
Reports the creation of the Defense HUMINT Service.
Capaccio, Tony. "New Pentagon Spy Service Conducted Operations in Haiti." Defense Week, 17 Apr. 1995, 1, 9, 12.
Waller, Douglas. "The Soldier Spies." Time, 29 May 1995, 31.
Intelligence Newsletter. Editors. "Covert Unit Alive and Kicking." No. 267 (29 Jun. 1995): 4.
The U.S. military's "'black' special operations unit once known as the Intelligence Support Activity (ISA) is now operating across the world under a different name and could even see its budget and powers increase significantly as sharper emphasis is put on special operations and HUMINT in the post-Cold War period." The unit's "mission remains focused on counter-terrorism and ... it is becoming increasingly involved in counter-proliferation, economic espionage and information warfare.... ISA's successor is also likely to be asked to provide crucial intelligence if the Pentagon needs to back up its counter-proliferation strategy with interdiction and preemptive strikes. The unit is said to be already providing intelligence on black markets in nuclear and bio/chemical weapons by infiltrating agents into gangs dealing in such activity."
Eftimiades, Nicholas. "DHS Stands Up." Communique, Oct. 1995: 1, 10.
Reports the announcement that the Defense HUMINT Service has achieved "initial operational capability."
Pincus, Walter. "Pentagon Plans More Espionage; Unified Service Might Use Phony Businesses For Spying Overseas." Washington Post, 30 Oct. 1995, A1, A7. "Spies in Uniform." Washington Post National Weekly Edition, 6-12 Nov. 1995, 32.
The new Defense HUMINT Service (DHS) brings together the military's uniformed and civilian clandestine assets previously spread among the four services. DHS has a three-year provisional go ahead for setting up overseas businesses as cover for collection activities.
Capaccio, Tony. "CIA Coaches Pentagon on Setting Up Commercial Spy Fronts." Defense Week, 8 Jan. 1996, 3.
The CIA is assisting the Defense Department's Defense HUMINT Service in establishing commercial cover for overseas collection operations.
Pincus, Walter. "CIA, Military Spy Mission for Bosnia." Washington Post, 13 Jan. 1996, A1, A14.
Pincus, Walter. "Panels Continue Impasse on Intelligence." Washington Post, 7 Jun. 1996, A21.
The House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence and the Senate Armed Services Committee have different ideas about the management of the Defense Department's clandestine human intelligence activities.
Duckworth, Barbara A. "The Defense HUMINT Service: Preparing for the 21st Century." Defense Intelligence Journal 6, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 7-13.
The author is DIA's Vice Director of Operations. The Defense HUMINT Service (DHS) was activated in October 1995, with a mission of conducting HUMINT operations worldwide.
Fields, Thomas J. "Thinking about Defense HUMINT for the Future." Defense Intelligence Journal 6, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 63-70.
The author addresses the questions: What is needed? Why is it needed? What challenges must be faced in achieving it? Unsurprisingly, the lead answer is, "more": More Defense HUMINT capability and more Defense HUMINT per se, both strategic and operational. This view is summed up in the following sentence: "If requirements continue to grow, Defense HUMINT must have more military personnel and more civilian HUMINT professionals with area expertise or simply face unfulfilled requirements."
Perkins, David D. "Counterintelligence and Human Intelligence Operations in Bosnia." Defense Intelligence Journal 6, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 33-61.
This article is heavy on organizational detail and light on supporting examples for field activities. Nonetheless, it succeeds in giving a taste of how military CI and HUMINT activities are proceeding in the field in contingency operations. The author stresses the increasing importance to commanders of hand-held digital imagery, but notes that "database storage and retrieval of this information is still an unfulfillable requirement."
Romich, Ron. "Daddy, Why Do They Call It Collection Requirements Manglement?" Defense Intelligence Journal 6, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 23-32.
The portion of the DIA Manual that sets out the procedures for submitting collection requirements is 41 pages long. The result is what the author calls "the format forest." Nevertheless, the presentation here describes the process doctrinally, that is, as it should occur in a perfect world. In this view, the collection manager is "the customer's representative, translator, tutor, advocate, and facilitator."
Richelson, Jeffrey T. "From MONARCH EAGLE to MODERN AGE: The Consolidation of U.S. Defense HUMINT." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 10, no. 2 (Summer 1997): 131-164.
This article reviews the issues surrounding the concept of centralization of military human intelligence assets and activities from 1947 (rather than from 1982's MONARCH EAGLE plan) through the formation of the Defense HUMINT Service (DHS) in 1995 ("initial operational capacity") and slightly beyond. The author also discusses the structure of the DHS and some its initial operations. He concludes that "the chance of returning to service-run HUMINT programs seems non-existent" but leaves open the final disposition of the military's peacetime clandestine HUMINT collection function.
Adolph, Robert B., Jr. [LTCOL/USA]. "Intelligence: The Human Dimension." Military Intelligence 25, no. 1 (Jan.-Mar. 1999).
Pick, Michael [LTCOL/USA]. "CI and HUMINT in Multinational Operations: The Lessons of Vigilant Blade 97." Military Intelligence 25, no. 1 (Jan.-Mar. 1999).
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