Liaison Among Nations

N - S

Njølstad, Olav. "Atomic Intelligence in Norway during the Cold War." Journal of Strategic Studies 29, no. 4 ( 2006): 653-673.

From abstract: "Norway took substantial part in the Western intelligence effort against the Soviet nuclear weapons programme during the Cold War.... Whereas the tasks of surveying the development, deployment and possible employment of Soviet nuclear forces always had first priority, Western atomic intelligence conducted from Norwegian soil and waters was occasionally aimed even at gathering information about the geophysical and possible long-term medical and environmental implications of high-yield nuclear explosions in the atmosphere."

Priest, Dana. "Foreign Network at Front of CIA's Terror Fight: Joint Facilities in Two Dozen Countries Account for Bulk of Agency's Post-9/11 Successes." Washington Post, 18 Nov. 2005, A1.

According to current and former U.S. and foreign intelligence officials, the CIA has established joint Counterterrorist Intelligence Centers (CTICs) "in more than two dozen countries." At the CTICs, "U.S. and foreign intelligence officers work side by side to track and capture suspected terrorists and to destroy or penetrate their networks.... The network of centers reflects what has become the CIA's central and most successful strategy in combating terrorism abroad: persuading and empowering foreign security services to help. Virtually every capture or killing of a suspected terrorist outside Iraq since the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks -- more than 3,000 in all -- was a result of foreign intelligence services' work alongside the agency, the CIA deputy director of operations told a congressional committee in a closed-door session earlier this year."

Richelson, Jeffrey T. "The Calculus of Intelligence Cooperation." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 4, no. 3 (Fall 1990): 307-323.

Richelson, Jeffrey T., and Desmond Ball. The Ties That Bind: Intelligence Cooperation Between the UKUSA Countries. Boston & London: Allen & Unwin, 1985. The Ties That Bind: Intelligence Cooperation Between the UKUSA Countries--the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Canada, Australian and New Zealand. 2d ed. Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1990.

Clark comment: In this work, the prolific and knowledgeable Richelson teams with Ball, Australia's preeminent intelligence scholar, to lay out the development and maintenance of intelligence cooperation and coordination among the so-called UKUSA countries, particularly in the area of signals intelligence, from World War II to the late 1980s. There are brief reviews of the British, Australia, New Zealand, Canadian, and U.S. "security and intelligence" communities.

According to Surveillant 1.2, the second edition "updates the state of the UKUSA network, incorporating events since 1985 as well as new information ... regarding pre-1985 events." But, as Wark, I&NS 7.2, notes, the revisions are minimal and fail to focus on significant changes in New Zealand's status and on sweeping changes in the structure of Canadian intelligence.

Sexton refers to The Ties That Bind as an "essential source for those seeking to understand the genesis of the Anglo-American intelligence and security network fostered by the Cold War." On the other hand, Lowenthal finds the account "[m]arred by an evident hostility" to some of the activities on which the countries collaborate and an "occasional analysis by innuendo." And Gelber, I&NS 2.1, questions whether all the facts stuffed into the book are of equal importance.

Rudner, Martin. "Hunters and Gatherers: The Intelligence Coalition against Islamic Terrorism." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 17, no. 2 (Summer 2004): 193-230.

Reviewing cooperation among and between nations in the war on terrorism, the author concludes that "the post-11 September mobilization against terrorism has prompted an escalated effort at intelligence cooperation based more firmly on the respective comparative advantages of the participating intelligence agenciers."

Segell, Glen M. "Intelligence Agency Relations between the European Union and the U.S." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 17, no. 1 (Spring 2004): 81-96.

"[T]he European Union and the U.S. became progressively involved, after 9/11, in a joint intelligence counterterrorism effort, alongside the evolution of the restructuring of European Union institutions and associated enlargement integration."

Sims, Jennifer E. "Foreign Intelligence Liaison: Devils, Deals, and Details." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 19, no. 2 (Summer 2006): 195-217.

The author offers a "framework for analyzing and comparing the costs and benefits" of liaison relationships. She concludes that these relationships "are going to be an increasingly important source of U.S. intelligence collection" against the terrorist threat. They will also represent a significant counterintelligence challenge.

Smith, Bradley F. "The Road to the Anglo-American Intelligence Partnership." American Intelligence Journal 16, no. 2/3 (Autumn/Winter 1995): 59-62.

Based on a lecture at the 1995 NSA Cryptologic History Symposium, this article surveys some of the roots of Anglo-American intelligence cooperation from late last century through World War I and onto the unmatched cooperation of World War II.

Smith, Bradley F. The ULTRA-MAGIC Deals and the Most Secret Special Relationship, 1940-1946. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1993. Shrewsbury, UK: Airline Press, 1993. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1994. [pb]

Surveillant 3.1 says this is a "fascinating study"; it is "well researched and clearly presented." Miller, IJI&C 7.1, finds that The ULTRA-MAGIC Deals has "many outstanding features"; it is an "extraordinarily detailed account ... of major interest to any intelligence professional." To Watt, I&NS 9.1, Smith shows "indefatigable scholarship in teasing out the main lines of his story." Rich, WIR 13.4, notes that the author demonstrates "just how much has come to light" since such groundbreaking works as Winterbotham's The Ultra Secret, Kahn's "invaluable" Hitler's Spies, and Holmes' "enduring, useful, and readable" Double-Edged Secrets.

McGinnis, Cryptolog 15.4, believes that Smith "deserves credit for his extensive research. The book contains considerable unique material. Further comments by the reviewer: Captain Safford, USN, head of OP 20-G in 1941, wrote a story for the publication CRYPTOLOGIA in which he made scathing comment on what the British gave and did as their part of the bargain when we delivered the two PURPLE machines. He titled that particular section 'Perfidious Albion'."

According to Kruh, Cryptolog 15.1, Smith "describes in great detail the history of cryptologic operations on both sides of the Atlantic. He tells of efforts to form a closer bond between U.S. units and between both nations. He explains the reasons for the concerns, distrust and suspicion harbored by key people with insight to their origins. It is a fascinating history of a basically unexplored subject.... [His] formidable research and his information is generally buttressed by official documents or interviews with participants.... The few inaccuracies should not prevent anyone from enjoying an extensive view of the development of the Anglo-American cryptologic partnership in WWII and the antagonisms between the U.S. Army and Navy which made it even more difficult to accomplish."

Stafford, David. "Roosevelt, Churchill and Anglo-American Intelligence: The Strange Case of Juan March." Intelligence and National Security 15, no. 2 (Summer 2000): 36-48.

Abstract: "Roosevelt and Churchill ... personally made possible a major intelligence operation involving large-scale bribery to keep [Franco's] Spain neutral."

Stafford, David, and Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones, eds. "Special Issue on American-British-Canadian Intelligence Relations 1939-2000." Intelligence and National Security 15, no. 2 (Summer 2000): Entire issue.

Click for Table of Contents.

Steele, Robert David. "Foreign Liaison and Intelligence Reform: Still in Denial." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 20, no. 1 (Spring 2007): 167-174.

The author points to "the many non-secret, nongovernmental, and non-intelligence liaison and information sharing arrangements that have been under development for the past eighteen years." He remains convinced that the Intelligence Community is not serious enough about maximizing the use of open-source information.

Stringer, David. "UK: Intelligence Sharing with the US Threatened." Associated Press, 29 Jul. 2009. []

A British government lawyer told Britain's High Court on 29 July 2009 that U.S. Secretary of State Hillary "Clinton had explained to her counterpart, Foreign Secretary David Miliband, that intelligence sharing between the two countries is at risk if a court makes public so far undisclosed sections of a 2008 ruling on the alleged torture of Binyam Mohamed."

Svendsen, Adam D.M.

1. "Connecting Intelligence and Theory: Intelligence Liaison and International Relations." Intelligence and National Security 24, no. 5 (Oct. 2009): 700-729.

Clark comment: This much I can agree with: "The intelligence liaison phenomenon can only be theorized so far."

2. "The Globalization of Intelligence Since 9/11: The Optimization of Intelligence Liaison Arrangements." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 21, no. 4 (Winter 2008-2009): 661-678.

"Washington still remains the major intelligence 'hub,' even perhaps the intelligence hegemon. This stems from its location at the center of the web of intelligence liaison arrangements that cover the globe.... Washington's greatest area of 'liaison dependency' now appears in the fickle realm of human intelligence (HUMINT) where the emphasis is upon connections with internal security services abroad."

3. Intelligence Cooperation and the War on Terror: Anglo-American Security Relations after 9/11. London: Routledge, 2010.

Peake, Studies 55.1 (Mar 2011), finds "little new" here for intelligence professionals, although the author does provide academics "a different way of thinking about the relationship."

Svendsen, Adam D.M. The Professionalization of Intelligence Cooperation: Fashioning Method Out of Mayhem. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

Peake, Studies 57.4 (Dec. 2013), finds that "[t]wo impediments inhibit easy understanding of the substance of Svendsen's approach. First, he never makes quite clear what factors will improve cooperation -- or whether it is even reasonable to assume there are any that can be applied generally.... The second impediment is that Svendsen's academic, sometimes pedantic style -- coupled with the frequent, serially listed citations included in the text -- can be bewildering and complicate understanding." Nonetheless, the work "is the product of intense research and deserves serious attention."

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