Post-World War II

Horton, John. "Mexico, The Way of Iran?" International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 1, no. 2 (1986): 91-101.

Hussain, Imtiaz. "A Mexico-U.S. Security Community? Intelligence Without Policy, Policy Without Intelligence." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 22, no. 1 (Spring 2009): 31-49.

The post-9/11 "Mexico-U.S. security incompatibility stems from both design and default.... [W]ith Mexico's heart, mind, and soul refusing to join the war against terrorism without first settling emigration and economic integration issues, this relatively minor country and lesser antiterror player ultimately holds the northern superpower's security needs hostage to its non-security imperatives."

Jordan, Mary. "Former Spy Chief Arrested in Mexican 'Dirty War' Case." Washington Post, 20 Feb. 2004, A1. []

On 18 February 2004, Miguel Nazar Haro, onetime domestic spy chief as director of the now disbanded Federal Security Directorate, was "arrested for crimes committed during what was known as Mexico's 'dirty war' in the 1970s and 1980s.

Leroy, Christophe. "Mexican Intelligence at a Crossroad." SAIS Review 24, no. 1 (Winter-Spring 2004): 107-130.

Mahoney, Harry Thayer, and Marjorie Locke. Espionage in Mexico: The 20th Century. Bethesda, MD: Austin & Winfield, 1997.

Miller, IJI&C 10.3, is quite enthusiastic about the Mahoneys' work. He finds that the authors know their subject and know how to tell a story about an interesting subject. American, German, Japanese, and Russian intelligence efforts are all chronicled.

Moore, Molly. "Spy Network Stuns Mexicans: Raid Opens Door to Exposure of Government Snooping." Washington Post, 13 Apr. 1998, A1. [http://www.]

A Mexican senator has exposed a large government electronic eavesdropping operation in the southern Mexican city of Campeche. The bugging was directed against Mexican citizens, political foes of the government, and prominent business leaders. "In recent weeks, more than a dozen other alleged examples of government [internal] espionage have been uncovered across the country."

Preston, Julia, and Tim Weiner. "A Document by Cuban Spy Talks of Acts Against C.I.A." New York Times, 8 Oct. 2000. []

When Cuban official Pedro Riera Escalante was arrested by the Mexican government, he "was carrying a document, parts of which were made public [on 7 October 2000], in which he outlined his career running operations" against the CIA. Riera Escalante was deported by Mexico to Havana on 4 October. He had previously "served under cover as the Cuban consul [in Mexico City] from 1986 through 1991. In the document, he described Cuban espionage operations" against the CIA station in Mexico City and operations he ran in Europe and Africa. See also, Kevin Sullivan and Mary Jordan, "Mexico Returns Diplomat to Cuba," Washington Post, 5 Oct. 2000, A22.

Sullivan, Kevin, and Mary Jordan.

1. "Mexico Returns Diplomat to Cuba." Washington Post, 5 Oct. 2000, A22.

On 4 October 2000, the Mexican government deported to Cuba an asylum-seeking Cuban diplomat, Pedro Riera Escalante, "who claimed that his true job for more 20 years was to spy" on the CIA.

2. "U.S. Tells Mexico to Protect Ex-Spy." Washington Post, 6 Oct. 2000, A22.

A 5 October 2000 statement by the U.S. Embassy in Mexico City "declared ... that the Mexican government has a 'special responsibility' to ensure the safety" of Pedro Riera Escalante who was deported to Cuba after seeking political asylum in Mexico.

See also, Julia Preston and Tim Weiner, "A Document by Cuban Spy Talks of Acts Against C.I.A," New York Times, 8 Oct. 2000.

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