A - L

Adams, Jan S. A Foreign Policy in Transition: Moscow's Retreat from Central America and the Caribbean, 1985-1992. Durham, NC: Duke University, 1993. F2178S65A25

Arnson, Cynthia. Crossroads: Congress, the President, and Central America, 1976-1992. 2d ed. University Park, PA: Penn State Press, 1993. F14368U6A761993

Barber, Willard F., and C. Neale Ronning. Internal Security and Military Power: Counterinsurgency and Civic Action in Latin America. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, 1966.

Bisher, Jamie. "German and Chilean Agents in Peru: Entwined by a Yen for Espionage." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 6, no. 2 (Summer 1993): 205-212.

Espionage in Peru, 1918-1920.

Bruneau, Thomas C. "Democracy and Effectiveness: Adapting Intelligence for the Fight against Terrorism." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 21, no. 3 (Fall 2008): 448-460.

"Several countries in Latin America have recently undertaken reforms of their intelligence systems.... While in most cases the initial motivation was to bring the intelligence agencies under democratic control..., civilian governments and military leaders are today increasingly motivated to reform their intelligence systems in order to better respond to threats from organized crime and terrorism."

Dinges, John. The Condor Years: How Pinochet and His Allies Brought Terrorism to Three Continents. New York: New Press, 2003.

Maxwell, FA 83 (Jan.-Feb. 2004), believes that this work "includes much new disturbing information and some remarkable revelations, particularly about the relationship of the United States to the Latin American intelligence agencies responsible for Operation Condor assassinations and other systematic human rights violations."

Dyer, George B., and Charlotte L. Dyer. "The Beginnings of a United States Strategic Intelligence System in Latin America, 1809-1826." Military Affairs 14, no. 2 (1950): 65-83. [Petersen]

Evans, Michael L. "U.S. Drug Policy and Intelligence Operations in the Andes." Foreign Policy in Focus 6, no. 22 (Jun. 2001): 1-4. [ -- no longer active]

"Key Points: The U.S. conducts a wide array of intelligence operations in the Andean region, passing information collected to host governments. The nature of the intelligence-sharing relationship limits the extent to which the U.S. can control how such information is used by the Andean governments. U.S. officials have sought to relax restrictions on intelligence sharing with Andean governments at a time when these provisions need to be strengthened."

Gilstrap, C. Wiley. "The Cold War in Latin America." CIRA Newsletter 26, nos. 2/3 (Summer-Fall 2001): 47-55.

These are the personal recollections of a CIA officer covering the period from 1955 to 1979 and a career from case officer to station chief. This is a good, casual read.

Ginter, Kevin. "Latin American Intelligence Services and the Transition to Democracy." Journal of Intelligence History 8, no. 1 (Summer 2008). []

Grow, Michael. U.S. Presidents and Latin American Interventions: Pursuing Regime Change in the Cold War. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 2008.

Berndt, I&NS 25.1 (Feb. 2010), finds that this work "is focused, organized and insightful.... The most glaring omission ... is that the chapter on Chile deals only with Nixon's 1970 decision to support covert economic disruption during Allende's term in office. The 1973 US-supported coup is mentioned only in passing." Nonetheless, the book provides an "even-handed and effective exploration of an always-controversial topic."

Hartlyn, Jonathan, Lars Schoultz, and Augusto Varas, eds. The United States and Latin America in the 1990s. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. F1418V652

LeoGrande, William M. Our Own Backyard: The United States in Central America 1977-1992. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Maxwell, FA 77.6 (Nov.-Dec. 1998), finds this "a compelling and elegently written ... exegesis of the bitter struggles over U.S. policy toward Central America in the 1980s.... By paying so much attention to Washington, however, LeoGrande gives too little credit to the Central Americans themselves for the ultimate outcome of peace."

For Robinson, APSR 94.4, this "is a truly encyclopedic study, a meticulously documented and minutely detailed reconstruction" of U.S. policy toward the region. Nonetheless, there are "substantial weaknesses." The work lacks a theoretical framework or even a central argument; the author's perspective too closely reflects his service on the staff of the Democratic leadership in Congress in this period; and the Washington-centric view leaves "key pieces of the story ... untold."

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