A - K

"Through Freedom of Information Act requests, and other avenues of declassification, the National Security Archive has been able to compile a collection of declassified records that shed light on events in Chile between 1970 and 1976." These documents are available at:

  Barry, James A. "Managing Covert Political Action." Studies in Intelligence 36, no. 5 (1992): 19-31. [Revised version] "Covert Action Can Be Just." Orbis 37, no. 3 (Summer 1993): 375-390.

ProQuest: "The role of covert action following the end of the Cold War is addressed, particularly in the framework of the just-war theory. US covert action in Chile in 1964 and 1970 is evaluated."

Bock, P.G. "Transnational Corporations and Private Foreign Policy: ITT in Chile." Society 11 (Jan. 1974): 44-49. [Petersen]

Davis, Nathaniel.

1. "Allende's End: The American Ambassador's Own Story." Washington Post Magazine, 3 Mar. 1985, 12-15.

Excerpts from Ambassador Davis' book, The Last Two Years of Salvador Allende (see below).

2. The Last Two Years of Salvador Allende. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1985.

Davis was U.S. Ambassador to Chile at the time of Allende's overthrow. I had a brief, but I believe close, period of time with Ambassador Davis at the Naval War College, 1980-1981. He was a good and honest American public servant. The depiction of Davis in the movie Missing was maliciously dishonest and pained the Ambassador deeply. In this book, he tells Allende's story as straightforwardly and truthfully as possible.

3. "U.S. Covert Actions in Chile 1971-73." Foreign Service Journal. Part I, Nov. 1978, 10-14, 38-39; Part II, Dec. 1978, 11- 13, 42.

Devine, Jack. "What Really Happened in Chile: The CIA, the Coup Against Allende, and the Rise of Pinochet." Foreign Affairs 93, no. 4 (Jul.-Aug. 2014): 26-35.

The author states "with conviction that the CIA did not plot with the Chilean military to overthrow Allende in 1973." As the CIA officer handling the "media account," Devine asserts that "the agency had no role in what was printed" in El Mercurio. He also argues that the CIA did not pay the Chilean truckers' union to go on strike in October 1972. Nevertheless, "the Santiago station had helped create a climate for the coup."

In an effort to read the historical record to mean what he wants it to mean, Peter Kornbluh, "Showdown in Santiago," Foreign Affairs 93, no. 5 (Sep.-Oct. 2014): 168-172, continues to lay the blame for Allende's overthrow (and even his death) on the CIA. Yet, he clearly understands that "Washington developed a longer-term effort to destabilize the Chiean government economically, politically, and militarily" of which the CIA and its media operations were only a part. Devine replies at 172-174.

DeYoung, Karen, and Vernon Loeb. "Documents Show U.S. Knew Pinochet Planned Crackdown in '73." Washington Post, 1 Jul. 1999, A23.

On 30 June 1999, the U.S. Government released "nearly 6,000 newly declassified ... documents ... that relate to human rights and political violence in Chile during the first five years of [Gen. Augusto] Pinochet's rule.... The redacted documents ... cover the years ... from 1973 to 1978.... Additional documents -- including some from 1968 to 1973 covering the election of Allende, a Marxist, as president and the events leading up to the coup and his death -- are scheduled for release later.... The documents are primarily status overviews and intelligence reports on the situation in Chile, and they add little of substance to scholarly and congressional reviews of the period."

Fagen, Richard R. "The United States and Chile: Roots and Branches." Foreign Affairs 53, no. 2 (1975): 297-313.

Calder: Discusses "the dynamics of US-Chilean relations during the Nixon administration, including the role played by CIA operations to undermine" the Allende government.

Goldberg, Peter A. "The Politics of the Allende Overthrow in Chile." Political Science Quarterly 90, no. 1 (Spring 1975): 93-116.

Allende "failed precisely because he had succeeded in changing the conditions on which the stability of Chile's institutionalized system rested.... The conflict between the government and the opposition ... was between alternative ways of defining the dominant stake of Chilean politics.... Competing with the claims and actions of the opposition, the government was at a disadvantage because of the conservative, consumptionist, and status-conscious predispositions of many middle-class Chileans."

Goldwater, Barry. "On Covert Action in Chile, 1963-1973." Inter-American Economic Affairs 30 (Summer 1976): 85-95. [Petersen]

Guardiola-Rivera, Oscar. Story of a Death Foretold: The Coup Against Salvador Allende, September 11, 1973. Hoboken, NJ: Bloomberg Press, 2013.

According to Peake, Studies 58.2 (Jun. 2014), this is "a political biography that dwells forcefully on Allende's strengths and gently on his flaws.... The attempts by the Nixon administration and CIA to prevent emergence of another Cuban-style regime are prominent, though now it is an old story, and nothing new has been added here."

Gustafson, Kristian. Hostile Intent: U.S. Covert Operations in Chile, 1964-1974. Dulles, VA: Potomac, 2007.

Goulden, Washington Times, 24 Feb. 2008, and Intelligencer 16.1 (Spring 2008), welcomes this "dispassionate study" of a subject that still garners strong debate. The author "tells a far more complex story than anti-CIA zealots would have us believe.... [I]f one cares to look beyond polemics, here is a good starting point." For Feinberg, FA 87.3 (May-Jun. 2008), this is a "provocative contribution" that "makes good use of newly declassified U.S. government documents, fresh interviews, and Chilean accounts to reexamine the intent, efficacy, and impact of U.S. interventions in Chile."

Peake, AFIO WIN 30-08 (4 Aug. 2008), concludes that this work "makes a robust case that the conventional wisdom concerning the CIA and the Chilean coup must be significantly modified. While it is not likely to convince the true believer conspiracy theorist, its well reasoned firmly supported position is unlikely to be eroded by the historical sands of time."

To Robarge, Studies 52.3 (Sep. 2008), the author's is a "landmark contribution..., which must be considered the indispenable study in the large bibliography" dealing with the "seemingly intractable subject" of U.S.-Chilean relations and the legacy of the CIA intervention. Gustafson "takes on prevailing misconceptions and provides details that add meaning to familiar material." The reviewer points to "some minor errors of style and fact" (such as, a prose that occasionally "takes on a slightly turgid, dissertationesque quality"), but concludes that this "scholarly and dispassionate contribution to the literature" is something "to be valued."

Gustafson, Kristian C. "Reexamining the Record: CIA Machinations in Chile in 1970." Studies in Intelligence 47, no. 3 (2003): 35-49.

The focus here is "on CIA covert action during the six weeks following Allende's victory at the polls in mid-September 1970." Following Allende's election, "President Richard Nixon delivered a clear and forceful Directive calling for expanded CIA operations in Chile.  In the weeks between Allende's election and his inauguration planned for 3 November, the CIA actively sought to foment a coup in Chile.... [C]overt operations to encourage a regime change by indirect means ... continued for several more years."

Haslam, Jonathan. The Nixon Administration and the Death of Allende's Chile: A Case of Assisted Suicide. London: Verso, 2005.

Jeffreys-Jones, I&NS 22.3 (Jun. 2007), praises the author for his "cosmopolitan erudition," "acumen," and "eye for telling detail." However, he faults Haslam for his position that Allende's economic policy was doomed to failure. That may be true, but U.S. economic sabotage made that impossible to know.

Henderson, Robert D'A. "'Project Rodriguista': Opposing Pinochet's Regime in Chile." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 13, no. 4 (Winter 2000): 438-489.

"[T]he Soviet leadership supported the launch of a clandestine 'Project Rodriguista'" by the Chilean Communist Party (PCCh) "to enable it to pursue an underground armed struggle against the Pinochet regime during the early 1980s."

Hersh, Seymour M. "The Price of Power: Kissinger, Nixon and Chile." Atlantic Monthly, Dec. 1982, 31-58.

Kornbluh, Peter, ed. Chile and the United States: Declassified Documents Relating to the Military Coup, September 11, 1973. National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 8. At:

Kornbluh, Peter, ed. The Pinochet File: A Declassified Dossier on Atrocity and Accountability. New York: New Press, 2003.

Maxwell, FA 82.6 (Nov.-Dec. 2003), comments that the documents the editor "has uncovered confirm the deep involvement of the U.S. intelligence services in Chile prior to and after the coup." What is lacking from Kornbluh's indictment is that "[w]e see only the U.S. side of a story that is at least two-sided, if not multifacted."

In "Mythmaking and Foreign Policy," Rogers, FA 83.1 (Jan.-Feb. 2004), takes issue both with editor Kornbluh and reviewer Maxwell. He argues that "[t]he evidence of U.S. responsibility for Allende's downfall is thin indeed, but the myth lives on, with unfortunate consequences." Maxwell. "Maxwell Replies," FA 83.1 (Jan.-Feb. 2004), fires back against the criticism of his review.

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