Materials arranged chronologically.

Counterintelligence News and Developments. "Former [Japanese] Naval Officer Guilty of Espionage." Dec. 2000. [http://www.nacic.gov]

On 27 November 2000, Shigehiro Hagisaki, a lieutenant commander with the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force, pleaded guilty "to charges that he leaked defense secrets, including information about US Navy units in Japan, to a Russian military attache." Counterintelligence News and Developments, "Former Naval Officer Sentenced," Jun. 2001, reports that on 7 March 2001, Hagisaki was sentenced to 10 months in jail.

Oros, Andrew L. "Japan's Growing Intelligence Capacity." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 15, no. 1 (Spring 2002): 1-25.

The author argues that Japan "maintains a greater foreign intelligence capability than commonly is acknowledged." In addition, "the decision to develop a network of domestically produced and deployed spy satellites marks the biggest evolution in Japan's intelligence capability."

Haruna Mikio. Himitsu no fairu: CIA no tainichi kosaku [Secret Files: The CIA's Operations against Japan]. 2 vols. Tokto: Shincho Bunko, 2003.

Mercado, IJI&C 18.1 (Spring 2005), calls this "an impressive history" of U.S. intelligence. The author "begins on the eve of Pearl Harbor" and continues through World War II and the U.S. occupation before turning to the Cold War era. In high praise, the reviewer comments: "As impressive as Haruna's thoroughness is his rational view of intelligence."

Struck, Doug. "Japan to Launch Spy Satellites; Move Is Attempt to Lessen Dependence on U.S. Intelligence." Washington Post, 26 Mar. 2003, A14. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

"Japan is preparing to launch two spy satellites [on 28 March 2003] that will mark the country's first military use of space and begin moving its intelligence agencies away from dependence on the United States. The decision to launch the satellites, which analysts say will focus on North Korea and China, results from Japan's dissatisfaction with periodic restrictions that Washington places on sharing satellite intelligence and delays in notifying Japan's top officials of a 1998 missile launch by North Korea."

CNN. "Japan Spy Satellite Launch Fails." 29 Nov. 2003. [http://www.cnn.com]

A Japanese H2-A rocket "carrying two satellites to spy on North Korea" was destroyed on 29 November 2003 "by mission controllers just minutes after lift-off.... One of the satellites carried optical sensors, the other was to be used for radar monitoring. A similar pair of satellites were launched in March." Japan's "space program has been plagued by cost overruns, rocket failures and a shortage of customers for its satellite launches."

Choi Sung-jae. "The North Korean Factor in the Improvement of Japanese Intelligence Capability." The Pacific Review 17, no. 3 (2004): 369-397.

Johnson-Freese, Joan, and Lance Gatling. "Security Implications of Japan's Information Gathering Satellite (IGS) System." Intelligence and National Security 19, no. 3 (Autumn 2004): 538-552.

The authors suggest that for Japanese policy makers the capabilities of the satellite system "appear ... to be a secondary concern to the initiation of an autonomous intelligence capability."

Associated Press. "Japan Postpones Launch of Spy Satellite." 25 Aug. 2005. [http://www.washingtonpost.com]

According to Kyodo News agency on 25 August 2005, Japan will "postpone the launch of a third spy satellite from the current fiscal year to fiscal 2006." The delay is caused by "a problem with computer chips currently in use[,] and at least six months are needed to replace them and test new ones."

United Press International. "Japan to Establish Intelligence Agency." 25 Aug. 2005. [http://www.washingtontimes.com]

According to Asahi Shimbun on 25 August 2005, "Japan's Defense Agency is setting up a 600-member team to gather intelligence relevant to its overseas troop deployments.... The intelligence unit, to be operational in March 2007, will gather information directly from contacts in foreign countries."

O'Rear, William Marty. "A Peace-Drunk Fighter: Pacifist Norms and the Japanese Intelligence Community." American Intelligence Journal 28, no. 1 (2010): 128-135.

"Pacifist restraints on ... three areas (protection of secrets, covert collection capabilities, and satellite imgery) have undermined the utility and potential of the Japanese Intelligence Community."

Kyodo News. "Spy Satellite Hit by Power Problem." 30 Aug. 2010. [http://www.japantimes.co.jp]

"According to the Cabinet Satellite Intelligence Center, the No. 2 radar satellite, launched in February 2007, appears to be having problems with its power supply and is being examined. The other three spy satellites, all optical satellites, are working to minimize the impact of the malfunctioning satellite, a Defense Ministry source said."

Radcliffe, William E. "Origins and Current State of Japan's Reconnaissance Satellite Program." Studies in Intelligence 54, no. 3 (Sep. 2010): 9-21.

"Over the past three decades Japan has gradually gained confidence in developing, launching, and employing an increasing variety of space-based systems for national security purposes.... Japan is now set to develop a launch-detection satellite for use in an increasingly robust national missile defense system even as it continues to employ more sophisticated reconnaissance satellites."

Davies, Philip H. J., and Kristian C. Gustafson, eds. Intelligence Elsewhere: Spies and Espionage Outside the Anglosphere. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2013.

Heard, Studies 59.1 (Mar. 2015), calls this work "a remarkably ambitious, edited collection of essays on the intelligence activities and organizations of a dozen countries or regions of the world." The book is divided into two sections. "The first contains four studies of what might be called the 'deep history' of intelligence in ancient China, India, the Byzantine Empire..., and the Islamic world. The book's second section has chapters on contemporary intelligence issues in Pakistan, Iran, Indonesia, Japan, Ghana, Argentina, Sweden, and Finland."

Japan News. "LDP Examines Establishing Intelligence Agency Like CIA." 12 Feb. 2015. [http://the-japan-news.com]

"[A] Liberal Democratic Party project team ... will ... discuss the pros and cons of setting up an independent intelligence organization.... During last month's hostage incident, the government is believed to have depended heavily on the Jordanian and Turkish governments to gather information on the two Japanese nationals, which has resulted in calls to reexamine Japan's intelligence-gathering system."

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