Prior to World War II

Best, Antony. Britain, Japan and Pearl Harbor: Avoiding War in East Asia, 1936-41. London: Routledge, 1995.

The reviewer in American Historical Review 102.3 (Jun. 1997) calls this work "essential rrading for anyone concerned with power and diplomacy in the Asia-Pacific region during the tewntieth century."

Best, Antony. British Intelligence and the Japanese Challenge in Asia, 1914-1941. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.

Mercado, I&NS 18.1, finds Best's work to be "a fine account of British intelligence and policy in the face of the Japanese challenge in Asia." The author's "argument is well ordered and defined.... [T]hose interested in both the particulars of British intelligence and the general problem of intelligence's place in foreign policy will find this book well worth reading."

Bisher, Jamie. "Japan's April 1920 Offensive in the Russian Far East." Revolutionary Russia, December 2003.

Author: "Describes Japanese and White intelligence roles in counter-revolutionary offensive and analysis by a former intelligence officer of the American Expeditionary Forces-Siberia."

Brown, Richard G. "Anti-Soviet Operations of Kwantung Army Intelligence, 1940-41." Studies in Intelligence 6, no. 2 (Spring 1962): A7-A20.

The Kwantung Army's intelligence apparatus was reorganized in 1940. The goal was "to separate the intelligence policy and planning echelon from the operating echelon; and to place the control of the ASSAs [Army Special Service Agencies] in a single intermediate headquarters." Although "[t]he overall performance of Kwangtung Army intelligence must be considered of mixed quality," there were "improvements in the intelligence mechanism as a result of the extensive reorganization and expansion."

Chapman, John W.M. "Russia, Germany and Anglo-Japanese Intelligence Collaboration, 1898-1906." In Russia: War, Diplomacy and Peace: Essays in Honour of John Erickson, eds. Ljubica Erickson and Mark Erickson, 41-55, 308-311. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 2004.

Coox, Alvin D. "Flawed Perception and Its Effect upon Operational Thinking: The Case of the Japanese Army, 1937-41." Intelligence and National Security 5, no. 2 (Apr. 1990): 239-254.

Drea, Edward J. "Reading Each Other's Mail: Japanese Communications Intelligence, 1920-1941." Journal of Military History 55, no. 2 (Apr. 1991): 185-205.

Esselstrom, Erik W. "Japanese Police and Korean Resistance in Prewar China: The Problem of Legal Legitimacy and Local Collaboration." Intelligence and National Security 21, no. 3 (Jun. 2006): 342-363.

Tells the "story of Japanese police activity in prewar China and a failed attempt to employ local collaborators in the suppression of anti-Japanese organizations operating within Chinese territory during the ealry 1920s."

Everest-Phillips, Max. "Colin Davidson's British Indian Intelligence Operations in Japan 1915-23 and the Demise of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance." Intelligence and National Security 24, no. 5 (Oct. 2009): 674-699.

Davidson was "the British Raj's first intelligence officer in Japan." As such, "he was the first British official to run the intelligence agents in Japan who provided the evidence of covert Japanese support to Indian extremists which fatally undermined the Anglo-Japanese Alliance."

Gourley, Robert D. [LCDR/USN] "A War Japan Won with Intelligence." Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly 10, no. 3 (Summer 1994): 1-4.

Lamont-Brown, R. Kempeitai: Japan's Dreaded Military Police. Stroud, UK: Sutton, 1998.

Nish, I&NS 14.1, notes that the Kempeitai "had both police and judicial powers," and those powers "grew and ... extended into the political domain" during the 1930s. First in the China war and later in the Asia-Pacific war, the Kempeitai "gathered military intelligence, intercepted enemy communications, monitored anti-Japanese activities and established espionage networks." While the author "has been most assiduous in collecting information,... [a] more academic study would require greater footnoting."

Loureiro, Pedro. "The Imperial Japanese Navy and Espionage: The Itaru Tachibana Case." International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 3, no. 1 (Spring 1989): 105-121.

Mercado, Stephen C. The Shadow Warriors of Nakano: A History of the Imperial Japanese Army's Elite Intelligence School. Dulles, VA: Brassey's, 2002.

Jonkers, AFIO WIN 30-02, 29 Jul. 2002, notes that the Nakano School provided training in "intelligence collection, propaganda and irregular warfare." The author is "a former CIA analyst and Asia expert," whose work "sheds light on a special niche of intelligence activities in World War II and postwar Japanese affairs."

For Seamon, Proceedings 128.11 (Nov. 2002), the author "manages to keep his scholarly report moving through a sea of Japanese names that could well drown a non-Japanese-speaking reader." Peake, Studies 48.4 (2004), comments that "[i]n addition to being an interesting and impressive work, The Shadow Warriors of Nakano is the only scholarly account of this subject in English and thus a unique contribution to the intelligence literature."

Nish, I&NS 18.1, says that "[t]his is an intriguing book,... packed with interesting facts.... It is well-grounded in Japanese sources and research in the American archives.... Mercado provides a comprehensive survey of an important element in prewar Japan's Army intelligence network." To Bath, NIPQ 19.3, "[t]hat portion of Shadow Warriors dealing with the post-surrender period and the relationship between the American military government and the remaining Nakano graduates is of particular interest." The author traces the influence of the Nakano "old boys" well into the postwar years.

Trengrouse, W. M. "The Ninja." Studies in Intelligence 9, no. 2 (Spring 1965): 45-52.

"Espionage exploits of medieval Japanese mystic warrior cult."

Vespa, Amleto.

1. Secret Agent in Japan: A Handbook to Japanese Imperialism. Boston: Little, Brown, 1938.

Kikus Reviews (undated): "In 1920 the author entered the secret service of the Governor-General of Manchuria, then under China. At the time of the Japanese occupation, he was forced into their service, unwillingly. Five years later he made his escape, and this is the inside story of those years.... It seems authentic."

2. Espionage in the Far East: White Russians and White Slavers. [UK]: Allborough Publishing, 1992. Vol. 1 of the Allborough Espionage Series.

Surveillant 2.5 says this is a new edition of the 1938 book.

Walton, R.D

1. "Feeling for the Jugular: Japanese Espionage at Newcastle 1919-1926." Australian Journal of Politics and History 32, no. 1 (1986): 20-38.

Calder: "Discusses Japanese spying in New South Wales."

2. "Japanese Espionage: Australia, 1888-1931." Journal of the Australian War Memorial 11 (Oct. 1987): 37-46. [Calder]

Weland, James. "Misguided Intelligence: Japanese Intelligence Officers in the Manchurain Incident, September 1931." Journal of Military History 58, no. 2 (Jul. 1994): 445-460.

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