General and Historical

Included here:

A. General

B. Historical

A. General

Borries, Rudolf von. Spionage im Westen vor dem Kriege [Espionage in the West before the War]. In Weltkriegsspionage [World War Espionage], ed. [Maj. Gen.] Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck, 77-84. Munich: Justin Moser, 1931. [H. Roewer]

Buckow, Anjana. Zwischen Propaganda und Realpolitik: Die USA und der sowjetisch besetzte Teil Deutschlands 1945-1955. USA-Studies 13. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2003.

von Buelow, H-German, H-Net Reviews, Oct. 2004, notes that the author discusses "the activities of RIAS (the famous broadcasting station in the American sector of Berlin) and various other propaganda efforts, particularly those aimed at East Germany's youth." However, Buckow concentrates "exclusively on the perceptions of a small group of American military and diplomatic policy-makers." Her "meticulous research could have paid more attention to the perceptions of the U.S. intelligence community, particularly since this group played a critical function during the Cold War (especially in Berlin), not merely in their role as furnishers of secret information to policy-makers but also as covert actors." (footnote omitted)

Bungert, Heike, Jan Heitmann, and Michael Wala, eds. Secret Intelligence in the Twentieth Century. Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 2003.

Van Nederveen, Air & Space Power Journal, Spring 2004, notes that this work "examines German intelligence structures and policy as well as the attempts of other powers to gather intelligence about German states." Although some of the early essays "cover issues already known to most intelligence researchers,... one also finds real gems dealt with for the first time in print.... What makes this book unique, however, are the post–World War II pieces."

Doerries, Reinhard R., ed. Diplomaten und Agenten: Nachrichtendienste in der Geschichte der deutsch-amerikanischen Beziehungen. [Diplomats and Agents: Intelligence Services in the History of German-American Relations] Heidelburg: Universitätsverlag C. Winter, 2001.

Kahn, I&NS 23.2 (Apr. 2008), comments that the seven articles here make up "a compressed, useful collection. All the articles are well footnoted."

B. Historical

Aan de Wiel, Jérôme.

1. "Austria-Hungary, France, Germany and the Irish Crisis from 1899 to the Outbreak of the First World War." Intelligence and National Security 21, no. 2 (Apr. 2006): 237-257.

From abstract: This "article argues that there was a definite 'Irish factor' in the events leading to the outbreak of the First World War, notably in Germany and Austria-Hungary's decision-making process."

2. "German Invasion and Spy Scares in Ireland, 1890s-1914: Between Fiction and Fact." Études Irlandaises 37, no. 1 (2012): 25–40. []

"[T]he effects of invasion and spy literature on Britain are well-known." This study seeks "to shed light on the situation in Ireland and show that on occasion fiction met fact and fact met fiction. The border between literature and reality was not always clearly drawn."

3."Sabotage in the USA! Imperial Germany and Irish-American Contacts, 1900-17." History Ireland 18, no. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 2010): 32-35.

The author tells "the story of how the Germans used Irish republicans in Europe and especially the United States for sabotage operations."

Coumbe, Arthur T. "German Intelligence and Security in the Franco-German War." Military Intelligence 14, no. 1 (Jan. 1988): 9-12.

Stieber, Wilhelm J.C.E. Tr., Jan van Heurck. The Chancellor's Spy. New York: Grove Press, 1979. [Chambers]

Steiber established Imperial Germany's first official secret service, the Foreign Office Political Field Police (later, the Secret Field Police), in June 1866. He headed an expanded service, the Central Intelligence Bureau, until the mid-1870s. His organization was gradually eclipsed by the General Staff's competitive organization, the Intelligence Bureau, established in 1867. Richelson, A Century of Spies (1995), p. 6.

Shpiro, Shlomo. "Intelligence, Media, and Terrorism: Imperial Germany and the Middle East." Journal of Intelligence History 1, no. 1 (Summer 2001). []

From abstract: "When the German Kaiser Wilhelm II visited the Orient in 1898, the ambiguous interaction ... between 'open media' and 'secret intelligence' for the first time was brought to the international arena. The German secret field police ... played an important role in this episode. It was to protect the monarchy, to censor the developing German press..., and to supply information independently of the Army General Staff. It soon was discovered that the foreign press, in fact, was a useful source of information, and at the same time, could be used for propaganda.... Because of an impressive international intelligence cooperation, in which the German secret services were the first to realize the potential of modern media as a source of information as well as an tool for control, any assassination attempts that may have been planned, [were] suppressed at the very outset."

Von Lambsdorff:, Gustav Graf. Die Militärbevollmächtigten Kaiser Wilhelms II. am Zarenhofe 1904-1914 [The German Militaray Attachés of Kaiser Wilhelm II to the Russian Court 1904-1914]. Berlin: Schlieffen-Verlag, 1937.

H. Roewer: "Maj. Lambsdorff was the last of them. The book contains ...original reports from St. Petersburg to Berlin on the political and military situation of Russia."

Von Feilitzsch, Heribert. Hiding in Plain Sight: Felix A. Sommerfeld, Spymaster in Mexico, 1908 to 1914. Amissville, VA: Henselstone Verlag, 2012.

Benbow, Studies in Intelligence 57.3 (Sep 2013), comments that this self-published book "is well researched and well argued." The author's "conclusions are logical, but while they are the most reasonable explanations for Sommerfeld's activities, they are not the only explanations." The book "would have benefitted from the services of a professional editor.... Despite these issues, Feilitzsch has done an exemplary job of tracing the activities of a shadowy character in a chaotic time and place."

Weiss, Stefan. "Wilheim Steiber, August Schluga von Rastenfeld und Otto von Bismarck." Francia 31 (2004): 87-112.

Kahn, I&NS 23.2 (Apr. 2008), identifies this as a "detailed, revelatory article about Schluga," the Austrian baron "whose information contributed to Prussia's victory over France in 1870."

Zuber, Terence. "The German Intelligence Estimates in the West, 1885-1914." Intelligence and National Security 21, no. 2 (Apr. 2006): 177-201.

Newly discovered documents offer some insights into German intelligence estimates and war planning pre-World War I.

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