Intelligence & Policy

Through 1970s


1. 1950s

Cutler, Robert. "Intelligence as Foundation for Policy." Studies in Intelligence 3, no. 4 (Fall 1959): 59-71.

"Describes, from the viewpoint of President Eisenhower's Special Assistant for National Security, how the National Security Council and its subordinate boards use current and estimative intelligence in the formulation of policy."

2. 1960s

Baldwin, Hanson W. "The Growing Risks of Bureaucratic Intelligence." Reporter 39 (15 Aug. 1963): 48-50, 53. [Petersen]

Barnds, William J. "Intelligence and Foreign Policy: Dilemmas of a Democracy." Foreign Affairs 47, no. 1 (Jan. 1969): 281-295.

Groth, Alexander J. "On the Intelligence Aspects of Personal Diplomacy." Orbis 7 (Winter 1964): 833-848. [Petersen]

U.S. Department of State. Office of the Historian. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1964-1968. Vol. X. National Security Policy. Washington, DC: GPO, 2002. []

From "Overview": "The editor tried to document ... the roles of President Lyndon Johnson and his key foreign policy advisers ... in the administration's consideration of ... national security issues. Major topics ... include: analyses of the Soviet military threat, the development of new U.S. weapons, the question of U.S. development and deployment of an anti-ballistic missile (ABM) system, chemical and biological weapons, tactical nuclear weapons, counter-insurgency policy, improvement of command and control systems, and military force structure."


3. 1970s

Adler, Emanuel. "Executive Command and Control in Foreign Policy: The CIA's Covert Activities." Orbis 23, no. 3 (Fall 1979): 671-696.

Lowenthal finds in this article "useful insights into the management of covert activities and some of the command and control problems that these activities can create."

Baldwin, Hanson W. "The Future of Intelligence." Strategic Review 4 (Summer 1976): 6-24. [Petersen]

Blachman, Morris J. "The Stupidity of Intelligence." In Readings in American Foreign Policy: A Bureaucratic Perspective, eds. Morton H. Halperin and Arnold Kanter, 328-334. Boston: Little, Brown, 1973.

Petersen: "Critical view of reporting on bombing results."

Cline, Ray S. "Policy Without Intelligence." Foreign Policy 17 (Winter 1974-1975): 121-135.

Hook, Sidney. "Intelligence, Morality, and Foreign Policy." Freedom at Issue 25 (Mar.-Apr. 1976): 3-7. [Petersen]

Hughes, Thomas L. The Fate of Facts in a World of Men: Foreign Policy and Intelligence-Making. New York: Foreign Policy Association, 1976.

Handel, "The Politics of Intelligence," I&NS 2.4/38-39/fn. 3, calls this "one of the best essays on the interaction between the intelligence community and political decision-makers."

Luce, Clare Boothe. "Intelligence and the American Doctrine of War: An Address by the Honorable Clare Boothe Luce before the Association of Former Intelligence Officers' Annual Pearl Harbor Day Luncheon on December 7, 1978." Periscope 5, no. 1 (1979): insert.

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