National Security and Environmental Concerns

M - Z


Manwaring, Max G., ed. Environmental Security and Global Stability: Problems and Responses. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2002.

Moss, Parameters 33.4, comments that the author "has compiled a succinct volume of expertise,... which makes the case solidly" that the current perspective of stability is so broad that it includes the environment as a security issue. This work "is a tour de force in identifying specific and typical problems and flashpoints." However, what Manwaring proposes as solutions "involves a level of international cooperation and an ability to engage in long-term analysis, planning, and implementation that is not characteristic of the world we live in." The book "is readable, not loaded with academic jargon and not overly lengthy."

For Matthew, Environmental Change & Security Project Report 9 (2003), the authors of this volume's seven case studies "do not demonstrate much familiarity with the academic literature and make no attempts to respond to familiar methodological concerns about case study selection or competing explanations that emphasize social variables." Nonetheless, the work provides "an interesting window into how the concept of environmental security is being used by some influential U.S. military thinkers."

Matthew, Richard A.

1. "Environmental Security: Demystifying the Concept, Clarifying the Stakes." Environmental Change and Security Report 1 (Spring 1995): 14-23.

2. "In Defense of Environment and Security Research." Environmental Change and Security Report 8 (Summer 2002): 109-124.

"Efforts to dismiss environment and security research and policy activities on the grounds that they have been unsuccessful are premature and misguided."

3. et al, eds. Global Environmental Change and Human Security. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2009.

Salehyan, Perspectives on Politics 9.1 (Mar. 2011), finds that the chapters on solutions "do not necessarily offer a unified view of environmental management and human security, but do suggest several possibilities for future analysis."

Mathews, Jessica Tuchman.

1. "How Green the Pentagon." Washington Post, 19 Jul. 1990, 23.

2. "Preserving the Global Environment: Implication for U.S. Policy." In The Future of American Foreign Policy, eds. Charles W. Kegley, Jr., and Eugene R. Wittkopf, 85-94. New York: St. Martin's, 1992.

3. "Redefining Security." Foreign Affairs 68, no. 2 (Spring 1989): 162-177.

Maybee, Sean C. "National Security and Global Climate Change." Joint Force Quarterly 49 (Spring 2008): 98-102.

Moloff, Alan L. [COL/USMC] Environmental Security and Engagement in Central Command. Atlanta, GA: Army Environmental Policy Institute, 2000.

Sayre, Environmental Change & Security Project Report, Summer 2001, finds that this work is "a brief description of the issues at hand and possible solutions for environmental security problems in CENTCOM.... [T]he monograph concisely illustrates how the national security strategy addresses the issue of environmental security.... [This] is a well-rounded look at the DOD's perception of envrionmental security and conflict prevention."

Myers, Norman.

1. Not Far Afield: U.S. Interests and the Global Environment. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 1987.

2. "Environment and Security." Foreign Policy 74 (Spring 1989): 23-41.

3. Ultimate Security: The Environmental Basis of Political Stability. New York: Norton, 1993.

National Intelligence Council. Global Trends 2015: A Dialogue about the Future with Nongovernment Experts. Washington, DC: NIC, 2001. []

See Geoffrey D. Dabelko, ed., "The U.S. National Intelligence Council's Global Trends 2015: Excerpts, Commentaries, and Response," Environmental Change & Security Project Report 7 (Summer 2001): 59-99. There are 14 brief responses to the NIC's report included here, as well as a response by Ellen Laipson, acting chair of the NIC.

National Intelligence Council. "National Intelligence Estimate: The Global Infectious Disease Threat and Its Implications for the United States." Environmental Change and Security Report 6 (Summer 2000): 33-65.

From Abstract: "These excerpts from a January 2000 [NIE] highlight the rising global health threat of new and reemerging infectious diseases. The [NIC] argues that the infectious disease threat will complicate U.S. and global security over the next twenty years. These diseases will endanger U.S. citizens at home and abroad, threaten U.S. armed forces deployed overseas, and exacerbate social and political instability in key countries and regions in which the United States has significant interests."

Pirages, Dennis. "Demographic Change and Ecological Security." Environmental Change and Security Report 3 (Spring 1997): 37-46.

Porfiriev, B.N. "The Environmental Dimension of National Security: A Test of Systems Analysis Methods." Environmental Management 16, no. 6 (1992): 735-742,

Porter, Gareth. "Environmental Security as a National Security Issue." Current History 94 (May 1995): 218-222.

Prins, Gwyn, and Robbie Stamp. Top Guns & Toxic Whales: The Environment and Global Security. London: Earthscan, 1991.

Rogers, Katrina S. "Ecological Security and Multinational Corporations." Environmental Change and Security Report 3 (Spring 1997): 29-36.

Romm, Joseph J. Defining National Security: The Nonmilitary Aspects. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1993.

According to Cohen, FA 72 (Summer 1993), Romm "looks at U.S. drug interdiction policy and the new notions of environmental, energy and economic security, shrugging aside the older, military conception of national security as having declining relevance in the new world.... An expanded article rather than a book..., [the author] expresses an increasingly common view, but not particularly incisively."

Rønnfeldt, Carsten F. "Three Generations of Environment and Security Research." Journal od Peace Research 34, no. 4 (1997): 473-482.

Ruff, Nathan, Robert Chamberlain, and Alexandra Cousteau. "Report on Applying Military and Security Assets to Environmental Problems." Environmental Change and Security Report 3 (Spring 1997): 82-95.

Shaw, Brian R. "When Are Environmental Issues Security Issues?" Environmental Change and Security Report 2 (Spring 1996): 39-44.

Simpson, Diana, comp. Climate Change and National Security. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University, Apr. 2008. []

A bibliography of sources categorized as Internet Resources, Books, Documents, and Periodicals.

Smith, Richard. "The Intelligence Community and the Environment: Capabilities and Future Missions." Environmental Change and Security Report 2 (Spring 1996): 103-108.

Smith is Deputy National Intelligence Officer for Global and Multilateral Affairs. The material presented here is a summary of his remarks and selected comments made at a "luncheon meeting" of the Woodrow Wilson Center's "Environment and Security Discussion Group," on 22 June 1995.

"The environment has been identified by the IC as one of the 22 'enduring challenges' which it will face over the next three to seven years and beyond. After Saddam has come and gone and Fidel Castro is only a dim memory, these issues will be very much with us."

Soroos, Marvin S. "Environmental Security: Choices for the Twenty-First Century." National Forum 75, no. 1 (Winter 1995): 20-25.

Stiles, Bradford R. "Environmental Law and the Central Intelligence Agency: Is There a Conflict Between Secrecy and Environmental Compliance?" New York University Environmental Law Journal 2 (1993): 347ff.

Tyler, Patrick E. "Senators Propose Shift of Defense Funds to Study Environment." Washington Post, 29 Jun. 1990, A7.

Ullman, Richard H. "Redefining Security." International Security 8, no. 1 (Summer 1983): 129-153.

United Press International. "CIA Opens Center for Climate Change." 28 Sep. 2009. []

CIA Director Leon Panetta has announced plans to create a "Center on Climate Change and National Security to examine the national security impact of environmental issues such as population shifts, rising sea levels and increased competition for natural resources.... The CIA will use the center to coordinate with other members of the intelligence community to review and declassify imagery and other data for use in environmental and climate-related issues."

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Environmental Security: Strengthening National Security through Environmental Protection. Washington, DC: EPA, 1999.

Vayrynen, Raimo. "Environmental Security and Conflicts: Concepts and Politics." International Studies 35, no. 1 (1995): 277-293.

Westing, Arthur. "The Environmental Component of Comprehensive Security." Bulletin of Peace Proposals 20, no. 2 (1989): 129-134.

Wirth, Timothy E. "The Human Factor: National Security and Sustainable Development." Sierra 80, no. 5 (Sep.-Oct. 1995): 76-80.

Wolpin, Miles D. "Third World Military Roles and Environmental Security." New Political Science 23 (Fall 1992): 91-119.

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