National Security and Environmental Concerns

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Ehrlich, Paul R., and Anne H. Ehrlich. The Environmental Dimensions of National Security. Stanford, CA: Stanford Institute for Population and Resource Studies, 1988.

Engelman, Robert. "Human Population Prospects: Implications for Environmental Security." Environmental Change and Security Report 3 (Spring 1997): 47-54.

Farrell, Lawrence P., Jr. "National Security and Energy Inextricably Linked." National Defense 91 (Jul. 2007): 6.

Foster, Gregory D., and Louise B. Wise. "Sustainable Security: Transnational Environmental Threats and Foreign Policy." Harvard International Review 21, no. 4 (Fall 1999): 20-23.

Foster, J.L., and J. Siljeholm. "The Environmental Security Problem: Does the U.S. Have a Policy?" Breakthroughs 7, no. 1 (Spring 1998): 37-46.

Funke, Odelia. "Environmental Dimensions of National Security: The End of the Cold War." In Green Security or Militarized Environment? ed. Jyrki Käkönen, 55-82. Brookfield: Dartmouth Publishing Co., 1994.

General Accounting Office. Environment: DOD's New Environmental Security Strategy Faces Barriers. Washington, DC: GAO, 1994.

Gizewski, Peter. "Environmental Scarcity and Conflict." Commentary 71 (Spring 1997).

"[C]ase studies examining the relationship between environmental scarcities and violent conflict illustrate the conflict-generating impact of scarcity in a variety of regional contexts, including Mexico (Chiapas), the Middle East (Gaza), Pakistan and South Africa."

Gleick, Peter H. "Environment and Security: The Clear Connection." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (Apr. 1991): 17-21.

Gomez, Salvador E. "Intelligence Activities and Environmental Concerns." Military Intelligence 25, no. 4 (Oct.-Dec. 1999): 37-41.

The focus here is on what the U.S. Intelligence Community might do to help Latin American countries deal with environmental degradation.

Griffiths, Franklyn. "Environment in the U.S. Security Debate: The Case of the Missing Arctic Waters." Environmental Change and Security Report 3 (Spring 1997): 15-28.

Grow, George. "CIA on the Environment." Voice of America, 15 May 1998. []

Gurr, Ted Robert. "On the Political Consequences of Scarcity and Economic Decline." International Studies Quarterly 29 (1985): 51-75.

Harris, Paul G., ed. The Environment, International Relations, and U.S. Foreign Policy. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2001.

Hoagland, Sara, and Susan Conbere. Environmental Stress and National Security. College Park, MD: Center for Global Change, University of Maryland, 1991.

Homer-Dixon, Thomas F.

1. "On the Threshold: Environmental Changes as Causes of Acute Conflict." International Security 16, no. 2 (Fall 1991): 76-116.

2. "Environmental Scarcities and Violent Conflict: Evidence from Cases." International Security 19, no. 1 (Summer 1994): 5-40.

Käkönen, Jyrki, ed. Green Security or Militarized Environment? Brookfield, MA: Dartmouth Publishing Co., 1994.

King, W. Chris. Understanding International Environmental Security: A Strategic Military Perspective. Atlanta, GA: Army Environmental Policy Institute, 2000.

Kiser, Stephen [CAPT/USAF]. "Environmental Mission Recommendations for the U.S. Intelligence Community." Environmental Change & Security Project Report 7 (Summer 2001): 133-138.

From "Abstract": "This article gives a concrete list of simple yet effective ways in which U.S. intelligence satellites can significantly boost the country's emerging environmental security mission."

Lancaster, Carol. "Poverty, Terrorism, and National Security." Environmental Change & Security Project Report 9 (2003): 19-22.

"[P]overty is not a major or direct cause of terrorism, and ... eliminating poverty will not eliminate terrorism.... [While] the United States should and must work to eliminate poverty in the world[,]... U.S. policymakers and citizens should not fool themselves that reducing poverty will eliminate terrorism."

Levy, Marc A.

1. "Is the Environment a National Security Issue?" International Security 20, no. 2 (Fall 1995): 35-62.

2. "Time for a Third Wave of Environmental and Security Scholarship?" Environmental Change and Security Report 1 (Spring 1995): 44-46.

Lonergan, Steve C., ed. Environmental Change, Adaptation, and Security. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Press, 1999.

Dalby, Environmental Change and Security Report 6 (Summer 2000), notes that this volume "contains the proceedings" of a "NATO advanced research workshop ... held in Budapest in October 1997.... The decision to print the entire set of papers makes for an uneven collection of styles, approaches, and academic quality.... There are very diverse views in these pages and a variety of different perspectives on what counts as both security and environment."

Lovejoy, Thomas E. "National Security, National Interest, and Sustainability." In Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World, eds. Peter H. Raven and Tania Williams, 506-514. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000.

Lowi, Miriam R., and Brian R. Shaw, eds. Environment and Security: Discourses and Practices. New York: Palgrave, 2000.

Barnett, Environmental Change & Security Project Report, Summer 2001, comments that the editors "include more exploration [than other works] of the complex relationship between environmental change and security by drawing on more disciplines and perspectives.... This is an excellent and useful book that deserves to be on the shelves of anyone seriously interested in contemporary developments in environment and security research."

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