National Security and Environmental Concerns

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Ackerman, John T. "Climate Change, National Security, and the Quadrennial Defense Review: Avoiding the Perfect Storm." Strategic Studies Quarterly 2 (Spring 2008): 56-96.

af Ornäs, Anders H., and Sverre Lodgaard. The Environment and International Security. Oslo: International Peace Research Institute, 1992.

Allenby, Braden R. "Environmental Security: Concept and Implementation." International Political Science Review 21, no. 1 (2000): 5-21.

Barnett, Jon.

1. The Meaning of Environmental Security: Ecological Politics and Policy in the New Security Era. London: Zed, 2001.

2. Security and Climate Change. Working Paper No. 7. Norwich, UK: Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia, Oct. 2001.

Benedick, Richard. "Environmental Diplomacy and the U.S. National Interest." Congressional Program 15, no.2 (2000): 23-32.

Boulding, Elise. "States, Boundaries: Environmental Security in Global and Regional Conflicts." Interdisciplinary Peace Research 3, no. 2 (1991): 78.

Broad, William J.

1. "C.I.A. Is Sharing Data With Climate Scientists." New York Times, 5 Jan. 2010. []

"The nation's top scientists and spies are collaborating on an effort to use the federal government's intelligence assets -- including spy satellites and other classified sensors -- to assess the hidden complexities of environmental change.... The monitoring program has little or no impact on regular intelligence gathering, federal officials said, but instead releases secret information already collected or takes advantage of opportunities to record environmental data when classified sensors are otherwise idle or passing over wilderness."

2. "Science Seeking Military's Data from Cold War." New York Times, 23 Jun. 1992, A1, B11.

On 28 May 1992, President Bush "signed a directive that cleared the way for environmentalists to use the nation's spy gear and records." Intelligence collection "platforms" which might provide information in monitoring the global environment include satellites, aircraft, ships, and submarines.

3. "U.S. Navy's Attack Subs to Be Lent for Study of Arctic Icecap." New York Times, 21 Feb. 1995, C1, C7.

4. "U.S. Will Deploy Its Spy Satellites on Nature Mission." New York Times, 27 Nov. 1995, A1, A14 (N).

A new program "is directing spy satellites to study about two dozen ecologically sensitive sites around the world. Ultimately, it is to monitor about 500 sites.... The data will be archived for future generations of scientists and will remain secret for now to conceal the abilities of the nation's reconnaissance systems." Scientists involved in the project note that "spy satellites are better than civilian remote-sensing craft, like Landsat or Spot, which orbit the earth for the United States and France respectively.... For the fiscal year 1996, the Administration requested $17.6 million for the environmental work, and appropriations conferees allotted $15 million."

Broadus, James M., and R.V. Vartanov. "The Oceans and Environmental Security." Oceanus 34, no. 2 (1991): 14-19.

Brown, Janet Welsh, ed. In the U.S. Interest: Resources, Growth, and Security in the Developing World. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1990.

Burd, Michael L. [LTCDR/USN] Global Warming and the Combatant Commander: Engaging the Arctic Region. Newport, RI: Naval War College, Oct. 2006. Available at:

Simpson: "The Arctic region is reemerging as a potential theater of operations because of changes" brought about by "global warming. A characteristic that ... distinguishes the Arctic from other U.S. geographic combatant commander (GCC) areas of responsibility is that its landscape is literally changing in physical composition. This reality brings with it many significant and far-reaching security implications."

Burman, Rohit, Kelly Kirschner, and Elissa McCarter. "Infectious Disease as a Global Security Threat." Environmental Change and Security Report 3 (Spring 1997): 66-81.

Busby, Joshua W. Climate Change and National Security: An Agenda for Action. CFR Special Report. Washington, DC: Council on Foreign Relations, Nov. 2007.

From publisher: "Recognizing that some climate change is inevitable, [the author] proposes a portfolio of feasible and affordable policy options to reduce the vulnerability of the United States and other countries to the predictable effects of climate change."

Butts, Kent Hughes.

1. Environmental Security: What Is DOD's Role? Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 1993.

2. "The Case for DOD Involvement in Environmental Security." In Contested Grounds: Security and Conflict in the New Environmental Politics, eds Daniel Deudney and Richard A. Matthew, 109-126. Albany: SUNY Press, 1999.

3. "National Security, the Environment and DOD." Environmental Change and Security Report 2 (Spring 1996): 22-27.

"The NSC should convene an interagency working group, possibly led by State, charged with developing a Presidential Decision Directive (PDD) that would enunciate U.S. environmental security policy."

4. ed. Environmental Security: A DOD Partnership for Peace. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 1994.

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