The Cold War

G - H


Gaddis, John Lewis.

Gallicchio, Marc S. The Cold War Begins in Asia: American East Asian Policy and the Fall of the Japanese Empire. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.

Ganser, Daniele. "The British Secret Service in Neutral Switzerland: An Unfinished Debate on NATO's Cold War Stay-behind Armies." Intelligence and National Security 20, no. 4 (Dec. 2005): 553-580.

The list of annoyances and not-quite-rights in this article is long. For instance, Maj. Gen. Sir Colin Gubbins is introduced as "a small, wiry Scotsman with a moustache." Which of these elements are needed prior to quoting him on the role of SOE in World War II? Then, there are such statements as "no documents supporting such a claim have been found so far." Is the "so far" really necessary? In other words, too much of this article does not rise above speculation. Nevertheless, the article "suggests that Switzerland ... was integrated into the international stay-behind network of NATO covering Western Europe during the Cold War." Maybe, but not proven here.

Ganser, Daniele. NATO's Secret Armies: Operation Gladio and Terrorism in Western Europe. London and New York: Frank Cass, 2005.

Riste, I&NS 20.3 (Sep. 2005), finds little good to say about this book. He comments that in the author's hands, the "stay behind" preparations initiated in several European countries as a hedge against Soviet occupation "becomes a story of a nefarious conspiratorial network." Ganser also inflates their significance by terming them "armies," a term that he seems to believe "covers units of less than 100 men." In addition, the author accepts "many unfounded allegations ... as historical findings." Peake, Studies 49.3 (2005), puts the issue succinctly: "proof is a problem for Ganser."

For Hansen, IJI&C 19.1 (Spring 2006), this is "a journalistic work with a big spoonful of conspiracy theories." The thesis of the work "is unsubstantiated by the content"; in fact, the author "fails to present any proof ... of the claimed conspiracy.... [T]he big U.S.-UK conspiracy theory does not hold water." Hansen, JIH 5.1 (Summer 2005), notes that "[o]ne of the important documents that Ganser bases his claim of the big conspiracy on is an American field manual.... In Denmark this field manual popped up on several occasions.... It was first presented in the late 1960's during the situation in Greece and also several times during the 1970's.... According to an analysis made by the Danish Defense Intelligence Service (DDIS) in 1976, this field manual was part of a KGB disinformation campaign."

Ganser, Daniele. "Terrorism in Western Europe: An Approach to NATO's Secret Stay-Behind Armies." Whitehead Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations 6, no. 1 (Winter/Spring 2005): 69-95.

The author argues that "secret armies" existed in Western Europe during the Cold War. They were coordinated by NATO, and run by the European military secret services in close cooperation with the CIA and MI6. "The clandestine international network covered the European NATO membership, including Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey, as well as the neutral European countries of Austria, Finland, Sweden, and Switzerland."

Garthoff, Raymond L. "Foreign Intelligence and the Historiography of the Cold War." Journal of Cold War Studies 6, no. 2 (Spring 2004): 21-56.

From "Abstract": "Foreign intelligence played a number of important roles in the Cold War.... This survey article provides a broad overview of some of the new literature and documentation pertaining to Cold War era intelligence.... Only by understanding the complex nature of the role of intelligence during the Cold War will we be able to come to grips with the historiographic challenge that the topic poses."

Garthoff, Raymond L. A Journey Through the Cold War: A Memoir of Containment and Coexistence. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2001.

"Editor's Shelf," Parameters, Winter 2002-2003: "Perhaps no other author has been as singularly successful in capturing" the events that defined the Cold War as Ambassador Garthoff. His book "is by far one of the most personal and thoroughly credible accounts of this period." Peake, Studies 51.1 (Mar. 2007), notes that the author's story of his career "spans the entire Cold War.... The story is absorbing and shows what rewarding careers analysts can have."

Graham, Daniel O. Confessions of a Cold Warrior. Fairfax, VA: Preview Press, 1995.

Haslam, Jonathan. Russia's Cold War: From the October Revolution to the Fall of the Wall. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2011.

Burleigh, Telegraph (London), 20 Feb. 2011, sees this as "the first comprehensive account of Soviet policy between the October Revolution and the fall of the Berlin Wall." The author uses "an astonishing array of original materials that take readers into the heart of decision-making in Moscow and its satellites.... Although Haslam is against the general scholarly trend in his repeated focus on Germany and central Europe, he gives fascinating vignettes of the proxy conflicts which the superpowers and their surrogates waged in various Third World contexts."

For Legvold, FA 90.2 (Mar.-Apr. 2011), this work traces the history of Soviet foreign policy in a "seamless, comprehensive fashion.... [T]he previously untapped testimony of aides and subordinates to key Soviet officials offers the most interesting and surprising insights into Soviet decision-making." Pringle, IJI&C 24.4 (Winter 2011-2012), finds this to be a "carefully and clearly written history." The author addresses "issues not understood well in the West." However, Haslam has "a tendency to rely on his private undocumented sources for intelligence information." Peake, Studies 55.3 (Sep. 2011), notes that intelligence "is not a major theme," but is "part of the narrative" throughout.

Hennessy, Peter. The Secret State: Whitehall and the Cold War. London: Allen Lane/Penguin, 2002.

According to Peake, Studies 48.1, the author reviews the mechanism and functions of the Joint Intelligence Council (JIC) "during various periods of the Cold War in considerable detail based on newly declassified cabinet documents." Addison, History Today 52.7, comments that "[n]o one writes with greater authority on Whitehall than Hennessy, and he tells the story with a sparkling combination of wit and infectious enthusiasm."

Herken, G.F. The Winning Weapon: The Atomic Bomb in the Cold War, 1945-1950. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988.

Cold War Connection, "Top Books on the Cold War,", finds that the author "describes the powerful, often-perverse influence the atomic bomb played in international relations between the end of World War II and the Korean War." Herken "is especially good in interpreting the debate over the internationalization of the atom and the domestic context in which that debate was conducted."

Herman, Michael.

1. "Intelligence as Threats and Reassurance." Intelligence and National Security 26, no. 6 (Dec. 2011): 791-817.

"[F]or each side the intrusive intelligence activities of the other were an important and continuing element.... The knowledge they produced may eventually have given Western governments -- and possibly the Soviet regime -- the confidence that the Cold War could be managed without disaster, yet for both sides the adversary's intrusive collection demonstrated the hostility that made the conflict continue."

2. "What Difference Did It Make?" Intelligence and National Security 26, no. 6 (Dec. 2011): 886-901.

"The most important Cold War judgments for each side were of the balance of offence and defence in the opponent's politico-strategic aims, and how this might be changing; and both sides may have got this balance wrong."

Hixson, Walter L. Parting the Curtain: Propaganda, Culture, and the Cold War, 1945-1961. New York: St. Martin's, 1997. London: Macmillan, 1997.

According to Caffrey, History 26.1, the author examines the "cultural infiltration" of the Soviet bloc through propaganda and cultural exchange programs. Hixson details the development of the Voice of America, Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe, and the instruments of cultural diplomacy. Rawnsley, I&NS 14.2, finds this to be "a fascinating and comprehensive study of early Cold War propaganda.... Hixson's research is impressive.... [He has] produced a book that is based more on primary sources than any other recent treatments of the same subject."

Hoffman, David E. "Reagan Approved Plan to Sabotage Soviets: Book Recounts Cold War Program That Made Technology Go Haywire." Washington Post, 27 Feb. 2004, A1. []

In his new book At the Abyss: An Insider's History of the Cold War, Thomas C. Reed, a former Air Force secretary who served in the National Security Council from January 1982 to June 1983, says that President Reagan approved a CIA plan in January 1982 "to sabotage the economy of the Soviet Union through covert transfers of technology that contained hidden malfunctions." This included "software that later triggered a huge explosion in a Siberian natural gas pipeline."

See also Gus W. Weiss, "The Farewell Dossier: Duping the Soviets," Studies in Intelligence 35, no. 9 (1996): 121-128; and "The Farewell Dossier: Strategic Deception in the Cold War." Intelligencer 11, no. 2 (Winter 2000): 23-28.

Hopf, Ted. Reconstructing the Cold War: The Early Years, 1945-1958. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Legvold, FA 91.5 (Sep.-Oct. 2012), comments that the author's "trim, modified version" of constructivist theory "brings a fresh perspective to why Stalin and his successors acted as they did in Eastern Europe and the developing world."

Hughes, Gwilym, and Michael Herman. "Special Issue on Intelligence in the Cold War: What Difference Did It Make?" Intelligence and National Security 26, no. 6 (Dec. 2011): Entire issue.

Hyland, William. The Cold War: Fifty Years of Conflict. New York: New York Times, 1991.

"William G. Hyland, 79, former deputy national security adviser to President Gerald R. Ford and former editor of Foreign Affairs magazine, died" on 25 March 2008. Patricia Sullivan, "William G. Hyland; Editor, Advised Ford On Security," Washington Post, 28 Mar. 2008, B7.

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